East Asian Civilizations Review Part 3 Section 6
Han Empire in China • Han empire had existed for 400 years, advances in trade and technology. • Silk Road: first trade route between China and Europe. • People traveled in caravans through deserts and mountains.
Tang Dynasty takes over • Armies force neighboring countries to acknowledge Chinese superiority and pay tribute. • Tang’s most important developments were gunpowder and block printing. • Empire weakened 300 years later and a new dynasty takes over.
Song dynasty • Ruled China for 300 years, Golden Age • Wealth and culture expands across all of East Asia. • China produces books, better ships, paper money, arts, and literature.
Genghis Khan • Leader of the Mongols, wanted to take over China. • Known for brutality to enemies, many allowed him to take over out of fear. • Created large multiethnic state in Asia • Positive qualities: encouraged arts, literacy, united people
Mongols take over • Mongols invade in 1279 and remove Song dynasty • Establish peace, political stability, and expand trade. • Believed heaven gave them the right to rule • Realized the Chinese were very advanced and did not try to change their culture.
Kublai Khan • Genghis Khan’s grandson and leader of Mongolian rule in China. • Improved everyday life for Chinese: • Built roads and canals. • Assisted with the poor • Encouraged book making and observation of the stars. • Maintained a large military presence in China
Marco Polo • European explorer who traveled to China and worked under Kublai Khan • Book: Travels of Marco Polo • Brought Chinese ideas to Europe, inspired later adventurers to explore the world.
Ming takeover • Ming dynasty takes over after Mongols in 1368 • Restore Confucianism as main beliefs, build up industries and navy. • Forced Mongols to marry with ethnic Chinese or face persecution.
Chinese Exploration • Chinese begin to explore Indian Ocean and East Africa. • Zheng He: led explorations to expand empire, collect tribute, and promote trade. • Showed military strength of China and collected treasures for empire.
Korea • Koreans are influenced by Chinese developments but try to maintain own culture as well. • Improve on block printing and create a simpler alphabet than the Chinese. • New alphabet made it easier for many Koreans to read.
Japan rises • Japan felt influence of Chinese but was not conquered by them because of seas surrounding Japan. • Nobles are sent to China to study Chinese government and technology. • Eventually Japan’s society adopted some of these ideas brought back.
Japanese Feudalism • Emperor is powerless, real power belongs to shogun. • Shogun: supreme military commander. • Shogun distribute lands to lords who help shogun by supplying army when called upon • Samurai: lesser lords who were warriors for shogun.
Tokugawa shogunate • Brought central government control, peace, and stability to Japan. • Encourage trade and the development of samurai culture. • Committed to ancient ideas which brought conflict when foreigners arrived.