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RIGGING OVERVIEW. Updated Aug 7, 2013. Highline Overview. Highline Types Components of the Kootenay Highline System Highline Setup 4. Operation. Highline Types. Horizontal Highline Sloping Highline Drooping Highline. Highline Setup. Messenger Line.

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slide1
RIGGING

OVERVIEW

Updated Aug 7, 2013

highline overview
Highline Overview
  • Highline Types
  • Components of the Kootenay

Highline System

  • Highline Setup

4. Operation

highline types
Highline Types

Horizontal Highline

Sloping Highline

Drooping Highline

highline setup
Highline Setup

Messenger Line

components of the kootenay highline system
Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Anchors

Pre-tension Back-tie

Kootenay Pulley

Track-lines

Tag-lines

Reeving-line

Raising Systems

Lowering systems

Tag line Hangers

High Points

Tensioning System

components of the kootenay highline system10
Components of the Kootenay Highline System

Raising and Lowering Systems

highline setup1
Highline Setup

Safety Issues

Messenger Line

Pre-tensioning

Tensioning

Using Mechanical advantage systems

highline setup2
Highline Setup

Safety Issues

PPE

Edge safety

Pay attention

Listen

No horsing around

highline setup3
Highline Setup

Pre-tensioning

6:1

Places initial tension in the system

highline setup4
Highline Setup

Tensioning

18:1 Rule – 1/2” Rope

12:1 Rule – 7/16” Rope

highline setup5
Highline Setup

Using Mechanical Advantage

Systems

operation
Operation

Commands

Lowering

Raising

Reeving

highline rescue system overview
Highline Rescue System Overview

Components of a highline rescue team

  • Lowering belay system
  • Raising belay system
  • Reversing the system
  • Tensioning the system
highline rescue team1
HIGHLINE RESCUE TEAM
  • Team Leader
  • Safety Officer
  • Edge Tender
  • Control/Operations
  • Static Anchor Team
  • Tag Line Team
  • Reeving Line Team
  • Medical/Attendant
team leader
Team Leader
  • Identify highline location
  • Briefing and outlining objectives
  • Identify anchors with squad leaders
  • Give assignments
safety officer1
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Rescue situations rapidly change. The effective Safety Officer must be able to forecast potential safety issues.
safety officer2
SAFETY OFFICER
  • The Safety Officer is responsible for monitoring and assessing the safety aspects of all team operations, door-to-door.
safety officer3
SAFETY OFFICER
  • A team Safety Officer should be assigned to every rescue mission and training event.
safety officer4
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Any member of the team can call a STOP to an operation if a safety concern is detected
safety officer5
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Scene Safety
    • Establishes, and marks a minimum 6’ safety zone at the edge
    • All personnel must be on a tether beyond this safety zone
safety officer6
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Scene Safety
    • Determine if the rigging location is safe
      • Loose rocks
      • Unstable overhang
      • Awareness environmental safety issues
        • Poison Oak
        • Hornet’s nest
        • Requirements for Personal Floatation Devices
safety officer7
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Scene Safety
    • Checks each member’s minimum PPE
      • Helmet
      • Gloves
      • Harness
    • Establishes a Safe Zone 6’ from edge
safety officer8
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Scene Safety
    • Responsible for selecting safe helicopter landing zone.
    • Assures an emergency medical plan is in place
    • Assures Horseplay does not occur
safety officer9
SAFETY OFFICER
  • System Safety
    • Checks each Anchor
      • Proper anchor materials
      • Proper anchor for situation
      • Bomb-proof anchor system
      • Angles
safety officer10
SAFETY OFFICER
  • System Safety
    • Checks each system to the component level
      • Knots
      • Proper carabiners in use
      • Carabiners locked
      • Proper and adequate edge protection in place
safety officer11
SAFETY OFFICER
  • System Safety
    • Checks each System
      • Adequate MA
      • Proper overall setup
      • Proper equipment used
safety officer12
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Edge Tender Safety
    • Edge tender has independent anchor
    • Edge tender is tethered before approaching the edge
safety officer13
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Operation Safety
    • Assures change-over procedures are conducted in a safe manner.
    • Assures adequate medical resources are considered when making search team assignments.
safety officer14
SAFETY OFFICER
  • Operation Safety
    • Monitors the entire operation.
    • The Safety Officer can stop the operation at any time.
    • Monitor vehicle safety: sleepiness and adequate breaks on convoys.
edge tender1
EDGE TENDER
  • Edge Tender Safety
    • Edge tender has independent anchor (may share a bomber anchor point, but may not attach to system anchors)
    • Edge tender is tied into an adjustable tether before approaching the edge
    • Clears loose rocks and tripping hazards from the edge
edge tender2
EDGE TENDER
  • System Safety
    • Places ropes on appropriate edge protection
    • Assures ropes remain on edge protection.
edge tender3
EDGE TENDER
  • Attendant Safety
    • Assist attendant and stokes over the edge
edge tender4
EDGE TENDER
  • Attendant Safety
    • Weighting the system before going over the edge removes slack and stretch in the main line. 20’ of rope in operation, with a 2% stretch, will result in 3”-6” of sudden movement if system is not weighted.
      • Tightening of knots
      • Stretch of rope
      • Rigging extension
edge tender5
EDGE TENDER
  • As attendant goes over the edge, the “Lower slow” used in approaching the edge should be slowed even more,
  • The attendant is rotating on a fixed point, neither moving back nor moving down.
edge tender6
EDGE TENDER
  • Communicates with, and for, the attendant at the edge.
      • Halts system 1 meter from edge

Edge Tender Ops Leader

“STOP!”

“Why Stop?”

“Attendant tension

the system”

“Lower slow”

“Lowering slow”

“Attendant at the edge”

over edge>

“Lower slow”

edge tender7
EDGE TENDER
  • Provides voice communication between Ops Leader and Attendant to relay changes in speed control
  • Observes the path of the rope to detect additional rope hazards requiring edge pro
control operations officer
Control/Operations Officer
  • Once all systems are built and safety checked. Team Leader gives control over to Ops Officer
  • Ops officer in charge of communication and operations of all systems
static anchor team
Static Anchor Team
  • Navigating to position can be challenging
  • Determine static anchor/pre tensioned back tie
  • High directional
  • Tag line system, raising and lowering
  • Install tag line hangers
reeving line team
Reeving Line Team
  • Determine anchor
  • Determine high directional
  • Set up system
  • Operate system, raising and lower
medical officer
Medical officer
  • First contact with subject
  • Independent rappel line to subject
  • While highline is being built medical officer will attend to subject, if access is available
adjustable edge tender leash
ADJUSTABLE EDGE TENDER LEASH
  • 8 mm Accessory cord
    • Attached to independent anchor
    • Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner
  • 6 mm prusik cord
    • Attached to 8mm cord with prusik
    • Attached to harness with Figure-8 on a bight and locking carabiner
raising systems1
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • Hauling without the aid of a system is a Mechanical Advantage of 1:1
  • Also known as the Armstrong Method
raising systems2
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • Our simplest system is the Simple 2:1 Mechanical Advantage
  • Components are:
    • Rope
    • One pulley
raising systems3
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • Our basic haul system is the simple 3:1 Mechanical Advantage
  • Components are:
    • Rope
    • Two (2) pulleys
    • One (1) rope grab
raising systems4
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • With the addition of a single pulley, the 3:1 is converted to a 5:1Mechanical Advantage
  • Components are:
    • Rope
    • Four (4) pulleys
raising systems5
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 3:1 provides a compound 6:1Mechanical Advantage
raising systems6
RAISING SYSTEMS
  • Piggybacking the simple 2:1 onto the simple 5:1 provides a compound 10:1Mechanical Advantage
reversing the systems1
REVERSING THE SYSTEMS
  • Work on only one line at a time
  • Change the Main Line first, then the Belay Line
  • Wait for direction from the Ops Leader before you do anything.
  • Don’t anticipate a change to the system
reversing the systems2
REVERSING THE SYSTEMS
  • Communicate
    • Tell the Ops Leader what you are doing,

before you do it

reversing lower to raise
REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
  • Step 1
    • Assure you have the equipment you will need
      • One Pulley
      • One Progress Capture Device (PCD)
reversing lower to raise1
REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
  • Step 2
    • Lock off your lowering device
reversing the systems3
REVERSING THE SYSTEMS
  • Step 2
    • Attach your Progress Capture Device (PCD)
reversing lower to raise2
REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
  • Step 3
    • Unlock the lowering device and load the PCD
  • Step 4
    • Attach the pulley to the LRH and rig the pulley
reversing lower to raise3
REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
  • Step 5
    • Assemble your Haul pulley onto the running end of the rope
  • Step6
    • Assemble your Rope Grab Device
reversing lower to raise4
REVERSING LOWER TO RAISE
  • Step 5
    • Attach your Rope Grab Device
  • Advise Ops Leader,
  • “Main Line Ready to Haul!”
reversing raise to lower
REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
  • Step 1
    • Assure you have the additional equipment you will need
      • One Brake Bar Rack
reversing raise to lower1
REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
  • Step 2
    • Remove the pulley and Rope grab and attach to the anchor plate

-- Lower the Load onto the Progress Capture Device (PCD)

reversing raise to lower2
REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
  • Step 3
    • Load the lowering device and lock it off
  • Step 4
    • Use the Load Release Hitch to transfer the load to the lowering device
reversing raise to lower3
REVERSING RAISE TO LOWER
  • Step 5
    • Remove the Progress Capture Device
    • Retie the LRH
  • Step 6
    • Prepare to Lower
  • Advise Ops Leader,

“Main Line Ready to Lower!”

forces on a highline
Forces on a Highline
  • When tensioning the highline it is important not to over tension the system
  • Need to stay within 10:1 SSSF (Static System Safety Factor)
  • The larger the angle at the mid-point of the highline, the more the load at the anchors is multiplied
tensioning highline
Tensioning Highline
  • Static System Safety Factor is a ratio between breaking strength of equipment and applied force (load)
  • Team standard is 10:1
  • Using a rescue load (2kn), 10:1 sssf = 20kn
  • All equipment in system must have at least a 20kn rating
  • Why use 10:1 SSF
  • 10:1 sssf covers worst case scenario under a dynamic situation
what is worst case scenario
What is Worst Case Scenario ?
  • In a rescue situation Worst Case Scenario is when rescuer is transitioning over the edge.

2kn load

Belay

1m

3m

1/3 Fall Factor

Fall

Amount of Rope

10kn to 15kn Peak Force

belay competence drop test criteria
BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA
  • British Columbia Council on Technical Rescue

de facto standard

Belay Competence Drop Test Criteria

    • 200 kg (440 lb) mass
    • 1 meter (3.28 feet) fall
    • 3 meters (9.84 feet) rope
    • < 1 meter (3.28 feet) arrest distance
    • Maximum 15 kN (3,375 lb) peak impact force

This test also calls for the maximum force transmitted through

the system to the anchor point to be no greater than 15 kN (3,375 lbf.)

belay competence drop test criteria1
BELAY COMPETENCE DROP TEST CRITERIA
  • Edge Transition is the Worst Case Scenario
    • Slippage through the belay device
    • Tightening of knots
    • Stretch of rope
    • Prussic extension
    • Rigging extension
dynamic system safety factor
Dynamic System Safety Factor
  • Peak force under WCS between 10 – 15 kn
  • Using a rescue load (2kn), 10:1 SSSF = 20kn
  • 10kn peak force/20kn breaking strength = 2:1 DSSF
  • 15kn peak force/20kn breaking strength = 1.5:1 DSSF
  • Both within 10:SSSF
  • Using the Average Dynamic Force formula
    • Peak force = 12kn
dynamic system safety factor1
Dynamic System Safety Factor

20kn

15kn peak force 1.5:1 dssf

10kn peak force 2:1 dssf

10:1 sssf

2kn load

slide93
When tensioning the highline it is important not to over tension the system and stay within the 10:1 sssf
    • Using ½ inch rope rated at 40kn
    • 10:1 sssf = Max. 4kn load on anchor
    • Using 7/16 inch rope rated at 30kn
    • 10:1 sssf = Max. 3kn load on anchor
tensioning rules
Tensioning Rules
  • One man rule
  • Ten % rule
  • Fifteen degree rule
  • Number of persons rule
number of persons rule
Number of Persons Rule
  • Pull testing using dynamometers determined with ½” rope total mechanical advantage needed to stay within 10:1 sssf is 18:1
  • 7/16” rope 12:1 mechanical advantage needed
standard tensioning system
Standard Tensioning System
  • Compound 6:1, 3:1 acting on a 2:1 in series.
  • Need 18:1, total 3 people
standard tensioning system1
Standard Tensioning System
  • All anchor points can be on one anchor
  • BFT
pre tension
Pre Tension
  • Pre tension before loading the system
  • One person pulling hand over hand with 6:1
  • No heave ho
tensioning
Tensioning
  • When highline is fully loaded 3 people hand over hand
  • No heave ho
  • If rescue load, system not loaded until subject and rescuer are on system
slide102
Forces we encounter in SAR
  • Simple Machines
  • Mechanical Advantage of Pulley Systems
slide103
Training Objectives
    • Participants will understand:
      • The Forces we encounter in SAR
mechanical advantage2
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • FORCE
    • What is Force
    • What types of Force do we encounter
    • What are the Units of Force
mechanical advantage3
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • What is Force?
    • Force is an external influence that may cause a body to accelerate. It may be experienced as a lift, a push, or a pull.
    • Force is a vector. All forces will have a magnitude and direction.
slide106
Forces we encounter in SAR
    • Forces due to:
      • Gravity
      • Friction
      • Impulse
      • Applied Forces
slide107
Gravity
      • g = 32.2 ft/sec2 = 9.8 m/s2
      • F = ma
      • F ≈ 0.10197 kg x 9.8 m/s2 = 1Newton (N)
      • A newton is the amount of force required to accelerate a body with a mass of one kilogram at a rate of one meter per second squared.
      • 1 kN = 1,000 N ≈ 224.81 lbf
slide108
Gravity = Weight
    • 1 kN = 224.81 lbf
    • 80kg (0.8 kN ≈ 1 kN) for a ‘single load’,
    • 200kg (440 lbs = 1.95 kN ≈ 2 kN) for a ‘rescue load’
    • 280kg (617 lbs = 2.7 kN ≈ 3 kN) for a ‘three-man load’.
slide109
Gravity = Weight
    • 1 kN = 224.81 lbf
    • 1 Person ≈ 1 kN
    • 2 Person ≈ 2 kN
    • 3 Person ≈ 3 kN
slide110
Gravity = Weight
    • The average rescuer can hold or apply a .2 kN force with one hand (≈ 45 lbs)
    • The average rescuer can hold or apply a .4 kN force with two hands (≈ 90 lbs)
    • Hauling an rope ‘hand-over-hand’ is applying a force of 45-50 lbs
slide111
Impulse
  • Reaction time to a failure or rope movement is 1 sec
  • In 1 sec a load will travel 16 feet
mechanical advantage4
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Simple Machines
mechanical advantage5
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Machines are affected by factors such as friction and elasticity
  • So the actual mechanical advantage of a simple machine will usually differ from its theoretical value.
mechanical advantage6
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley:

  • Pulleys change the direction of a tension force on a flexible material, e.g. a rope or cable. In addition, pulleys can be "added together" to create mechanical advantage, by having the flexible material looped over several pulleys in turn. More loops and pulleys increases the mechanical advantage.
mechanical advantage7
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley as a Lever:

  • The pulley is a variation of the wheel and axle.
  • The size of a pulley does not influence the MA.
  • The size of a pulley does influence the efficiency of the pulley.
  • The larger the pulley, the more efficient the pulley.
mechanical advantage8
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Types:

  • Fixed pulley
    • Provides change of direction ONLY
mechanical advantage9
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Types:

  • Movable pulley

– Adds Mechanical Advantage

mechanical advantage10
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley:

  • Pulleys change the direction of a tension force on a flexible material, e.g. a rope or cable.
  • Pulleys can be "added together" to create mechanical advantage, by having the flexible material looped over several pulleys in turn.
  • More loops and pulleys can increase the mechanical advantage.
mechanical advantage11
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE

Pulley Efficiency:

  • Two factors determine a pulley's efficiency:
    • Sheave size: the large the sheave diameter, the higher the efficiency.
    • Bushings and bearings: self-lubricating bushings are efficient, but they must be regularly maintained.Ball bearings are very efficient and since they are sealed, they do not require any maintenance.
mechanical advantage12
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Effective pulley systems must always have one side anchored and the other side attached to the moving load, known as the anchor side and the load side. There must be something to pull against
mechanical advantage13
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • The longest distance a pulley system can be stretched, the distance from the anchored pulley to the moving pulley, is called the stroke.
  • The longer the stroke, the more useful the MA system.
mechanical advantage14
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Pulling the system down to its smallest stroke is called compression.
  • It is called de-set when the system is compressed so it will expand again when using the MA system as the Decent Control Device (DCD) to lower a load rather than to raise it.
mechanical advantage15
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Extension means to pull out a pulley system to its longest stroke. Re-set in when the system is extended again during raising operations and another haul segment is made on the main line.
mechanical advantage16
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • All anchored pulleys are Change Of Direction (COD) only.
mechanical advantage17
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Pulleys that move with a load (unanchored pulleys) are simple machines that gain advantage.
mechanical advantage18
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Pulley systems are either simple, compound or complex.
  • Compound pulley systems are made up of at least two simple pulley systems.
  • Complex pulley systems are made up of at least one simple pulley system and at least one compound pulley system.
mechanical advantage19
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN
  • 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 248:1
mechanical advantage20
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • If the terminal end of a haul line is attached to the anchor, the simple pulley system will be EVEN
  • 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, 115:1
mechanical advantage21
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Simple pulley systems have a greater stroke than compound pulley systems of the same MA.
mechanical advantage22
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • Mechanical Advantage
mechanical advantage23
MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE
  • The Mechanical Advantage of a pulley system can be expressed as a ratio.
  • It is the ratio of the amount of force that must be applied to a haul line to move a load, divided by the weight of the object that must be moved.
  • It is the ratio of the weight of the object that must be moved to the amount of force that must be applied to move it.
  • 2:1 = 2 Units of output force will result from 1 Unit of input force
slide132
Tomorrow 07:30
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