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EU Conference on Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes. The Substitution Approach in Other Policy Areas. Joachim D’Eugenio. Other policy areas. Water policy, the Water Framework Directive Industrial pollution, the IPPC Directive Others such as workers protection .
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EU Conference on Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals in Products and Processes The Substitution Approach in Other Policy Areas Joachim D’Eugenio
Other policy areas • Water policy, the Water Framework Directive • Industrial pollution, the IPPC Directive • Others such as workers protection
The new Directive Water Framework Directive European Parliament and Council Directive 2000/60/EC of 23 Oct. 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy Priority Substances Decision European Parliament and Council Decision No. 2455/2001/EC of 20 November 2001 establishing the list of priority substances in the field of water policy
Concept Measures under Water Framework Directive Coordination of all other measures • drinking water bathing water urban waste water nitrates IPPC & other industry discharges chemicals pesticides biocides landfills sewage sludge
Strategies against pollution Provisions with regards to hazardous substances (in surface waters) On Community level: specific measures for priority (hazardous) substances On Member State level: pollution control for point and diffuse sources of other pollutants on the basis of the “combined approach”
Level of measures Specific measures for priority substances: progressive reductionof discharges, emissions and losses Specific measures for priority hazardoussubstances: cessation of discharges, emissions and losses within 20 years
Priority setting Method for the selection of priority substances COmbinedMonitoring-based and Modelling-basedPriority Setting
COMMPS method “Top 30” selected according to their risk to or via the aquatic environment Concentrations from data of monitoring or modelling Relative Risk = Exposure x Effects eco-toxicity, bioaccumulation and human health
COMMPS procedure (data) • 658 candidate substances • 750 000 aquatic monitoring data • 69 000 sediment monitoring data • monitoring data for 330 substances • data from all Member States and EUREAU • modelling data for 318 substances (IUCLID • database of the European Chemicals Bureau)
Next steps Commission proposals within in 2003 for emission controls and quality standards • principle sources • cost-effective and proportionate level and combination • product controls and emission limit values • surface waters, • sediments or • biota
Substitution in water policy • Priority hazardous substances should be substituted ass soon as possible • Substitution approach for future emission controls • Additional tools for comparative assessment of impacts to water (e.g. priority setting, COMMPS) • synergies with chemical policy
The IPPC Directive* covers 1. Prevention of pollution caused by production selection of raw and auxiliary materials cleaner production processes 2. Control of pollution caused by production end-of-pipe abatement techniques IPPC Directive (96/61/EC) It does not cover - Pollution caused by products
Energy industries Production and processing of metals Mineral industry Chemical industry Waste management Other activities, e.g. Production of pulp and paper Pre-treatment of textiles Printing, coating, degreasing, waterproofing etc. IPPC Activities Annex I: CATEGORIES OF INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES
BEST means “most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole” AVAILABLE means “developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages” TECHNIQUES include “both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned” Best Available Techniques Definitions in the IPPC Directive:
Annex IV Considerations to be taken into account generally or in specific cases when determining BAT, bearing in mind the likely costs and benefits of a measure and the principles of precaution and prevention: … 2. the use of less hazardous substances ... Substitution and BAT
required by Directive purpose to support permitting authorities published BAT Reference Documents (BREFs) for each sector BREFs should be taken into account by the permitting authorities BAT Information Exchange
Iron and steel production Cement and lime production Non ferrous metals processing Pulp and paper production Glass production Ferrous metal processing Cooling systems Chlor-Alkali production Tanning of hides and skins Large-Volume Organic Chemicals production Waste water and waste gas treatment in the chemical industry Refining of mineral oil Finalised BREFs
5.2 Substitution of chemicals For the substitution of chemicals, BAT is: • to substitute less harmful chemicals for agents and auxiliaries that are known to be harmful to the environment • to maintain an inventory of inputs and outputs, their fate in processes and releases • to measure appropriate parameters to monitor the environmental releases • to exercise responsible management including e.g, awareness of the chemicals applied in the process (including ready-made supplies), staff training, information and safety measures for workforce and environment. E.g. Tanneries BREF
There are BAT conclusions for the substitution of - Biocides - Halogenated organic compounds - Organic solvents (non-halogenated) - Surfactants - Complexing agents - Ammonium deliming agents - Tanning agents - Dyestuffs - Fatliquoring agents - Finishing agents - ... E.g. Tanneries BREF
Substitution and IPPC • Substitution is incorporated into the BAT concept • Made operational through the sector-based BREFs • Tool for reporting successful substitution of chemicals is the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER)
Other relevant policy areas Workers protection policy • Directive protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work (98/24/EC) • Directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work(90/394/EEC) VOC Directive (1999/13/EC) The IPP Green Paper (7.2.2001)
Conclusions • Substitution is widely known as an available tool in other policy areas • operational examples in IPPC and workers protection legislation • strong links and potential for synergies with chemical policy
More information On environmental policy incl. water: http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment On IPPC and BREFs: http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htm Email: joachim.d’firstname.lastname@example.org