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The New Production of Knowledge. Michael Gibbons, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott, Martin Trow. Single discipline-based Problem formulation governed by interests of specific community Problems set and solved in (largely) academic context.

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The New Production of Knowledge


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the new production of knowledge

The New Production of Knowledge

Michael Gibbons, Camille Limoges, Helga Nowotny, Simon Schwartzman, Peter Scott, Martin Trow

mode 1 and mode 2
Single discipline-based

Problem formulation governed by interests of specific community

Problems set and solved in (largely) academic context

Trans-disciplinary, involving a diverse range of specialists

Problem formulation governed by interests of actors involved with practical problems

Problems set and solved in application-based context

Mode 1 and Mode 2
mode 1 and mode 23
Newtonian model of science specific to a field of enquiry

Research practice conforms to norms of discipline’s definition of “scientific”

Quasi-permanent, institutionally-based teams

Emergent theoretical / conceptual framework not reducible to single discipline

Research practice reflexive and socially accountable

Short-lived, problem-defined, non-institutional teams

Mode 1 and Mode 2
mode 1 and mode 24
Hierarchical and conservative team organization

Normative, rule-based, “scientific” knowledge produced

“Innovation” seen as production of “new” knowledge

Non-hierarchical and transient team organization

Consensual, continuously negotiated, knowledge produced

“Innovation” also seen as reconfiguration of existing knowledge for new contexts

Mode 1 and Mode 2
mode 1 and mode 25
Separate knowledge production and application

Dissemination is discipline-based through institutional channels

Research practice should be “good science”

Integrated knowledge production and application

Dissemination is through collaborating partners and social networks

Dynamic research practice characterized by on the move problem-solving

Mode 1 and Mode 2
slide6
These slides were originally prepared by David Campbell, a visiting scholar at GWU, based on the book, The New Production of Knowledge