morphology part 4 allomorphy n.
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Morphology, Part 4: Allomorphy. February 2, 2012. Internal Change. A (slightly) more common word-formation process in English is internal change . = changing sounds inside a root creates a new word. Also known as alternations sing ~ s a ng present/past drive ~ dr o ve present/past

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internal change
Internal Change
  • A (slightly) more common word-formation process in English is internal change.
    • = changing sounds inside a root creates a new word.
  • Also known as alternations
  • sing ~ sang present/past
  • drive ~ drove present/past
  • foot ~ feet singular/plural
  • mouse ~ mice singular/plural
  • import ~ import noun/verb
  • present ~ present noun/verb
by the way
By the way...
  • Some internal change processes have (limited) productivity in English
  • What’s the past tense of “sing”?
  • sang sung
  • ring?
  • rang rung
  • bring?
  • brang? brung?
  • brought? brought?
internal change quick write
Internal Change Quick Write
  • 46 total responses.
  • Did you vake? Yes, I…
    • vook (2); vade (1)
  • Did you slike? Yes, I…
    • Everybody said “sliked”!
  • Did you neak? Yes, I…
    • nuck (1)
internal change quick write1
Internal Change Quick Write
  • 4. Did you mide? Yes, I…
    • mid (6); mode (5); made (1); midden (1); midded (1)
  • 5. Did you strink? Yes, I…
    • strunk (10); strank (6)
  • 6. Did you lun? Yes, I…
    • lan (5); lunded (1)
  • Internal changes are made for the new forms to the extent that they resemble phonologically similar forms already in the language. (ride, drink, run)
last but not least
Last but not least
  • Sometimes an affix changes form, depending on what kind of root it attaches to.
  • Consider English /in-/
    • combines with adjectives to form adjectives
    • means “the opposite of”
  • Examples:
    • /in-/ + accurate = inaccurate
    • /in-/ + tolerant = intolerant
    • /in-/ + direct = indirect
allomorphy
Allomorphy
  • What’s going on in these cases?
    • /in-/ + legible = illegible
    • /in-/ + regular = irregular
    • /in-/ + legal = illegal
  • There are two new forms of the affix: /il-/ and /ir-/
  • These are called allomorphs.
    • Allomorphs = “different forms”
allomorphy1
Allomorphy
  • What’s going on here?
    • /in-/ + probable = improbable
    • /in-/ + mobile = immobile
    • /in-/ + possible = impossible
  • /in-/ changes to /im-/ before both /p/ and /m/.
  • /p/ and /m/ are both produced with the lips.
  • To explain patterns like this, we’re going to need to know something about how we actually produce the sounds of English.
  • We have to study Phonetics!
allomorphy2
Allomorphy
  • Another English example:
    • a dog an owl
    • a noise an orange
    • a strawberry an apple
  • Here’s another:
    • walked invited
    • sprayed needed
    • stopped hated
    • fired landed
  • What’s the pattern?
allomorphy3
Allomorphy
  • One last pattern:
    • cats matches
    • judges dogs
    • chairs passes
  • When do we add an extra syllable?
  • How does the pattern compare to the formation of third person singular verbs?
    • waits, loves, shows, finds…
    • watches, hatches, kisses, spazzes…
  • The pattern is based entirely on the sounds involved;
    • not on the meaning of the morphemes.
allomorphy4
Allomorphy
  • Italian Quick Write
  • Finally: Let’s work on some practice morphology exercises…