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Action Research to Improve Accounting Education and Accounting Educators. Susan M. Curtis University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. So, Why is this a Webinar about . Teaching is the one thing w e all do. . Action Research ?. The Scholarship of Teaching.

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action research to improve accounting education and accounting educators

Action Research to Improve Accounting Education and Accounting Educators

Susan M. Curtis

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

so why is this a webinar about

So, Why is this a Webinar about

Teachingis the

one thing

we all do.

Action Research?

the scholarship of teaching

The Scholarship of Teaching

“Scholarly teaching is what every one of us should be engaged in every day that we are in a classroom, in our office with students, tutoring, lecturing, conducting discussions, all the roles we play pedagogically....”

“But it is only when we step back and reflect systematically on the teaching we have done, in a form that can be publicly reviewed and built upon by our peers, that we have moved from scholarly teaching to the scholarship of teaching.”

Lee Schulman, President of

The Carnegie Foundation

for the Advancement

of Teaching

polling question 1
Polling Question 1
  • Pick the statement that best describes your current relationship
  • with the scholarship (i.e. research) of teaching.
  • Previously, I never thought about the scholarship of teaching
  • I consume scholarship of teaching (e.g. read published papers)
  • I participate in a learning community focused on teaching
  • I actively research teaching
  • I would like to learn more about the research of teaching
agenda
Agenda
  • Why Should You Research Your Teaching?
  • Action Research
  • Sharing Your Action Research
slide6

Some reasons why you

may want to research

yourteaching

why should you research your teaching
Why Should You Research Your Teaching?
  • Compared to faculty who do not research their teaching, faculty who research their teaching are
    • More likely to know and understand
      • their students
      • the learning environment
    • Better equipped to
      • impart non-pedagogic scholarship to their students
      • promote reflective learning in their students
      • help weaker students achieve educational goals

Ravenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26: 180-187.

St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2): 123-130.

why should you research your teaching1
Why Should You Research Your Teaching?

Faculty who research

& improve their own teaching, the teaching practices others—and be better able to enhance its effectiveness

may also influence and

enhance the teaching of others

Ravenscroft, S., Rebele, J., St. Pierre, K. and R. Wilson. (2008). The Importance of Accounting Education Research Journal of Accounting Education, 26: 180-187.

St. Pierre, K., Wilson, R., Ravenscroft, S. and J. Rebele. (2009). The Role of Accounting Education Research in our Discipline. Issues in Accounting Education, 24(2): 123-130.

why should you research your teaching2
Why Should You Research Your Teaching?
  • Accreditation
  • “Intellectual Contribution”, “Scholarship”, “Scholarly Activities”

Excerpts from their accreditation standards…

(AACSB) Definition: “Intellectual contributions are original works intended to advancethe theory, practice, and/or teaching of accounting, business and management.

  • (ACBSP) “It is expected that each faculty member be continuously and actively engaged in scholarship…”
  • (AACCHC) “Criteria for selecting faculty include knowledge of subject matter… effective teaching, scholarly activities…”

Examples of Accreditation Agencies

(AACSB) Association for the Advancement of Collegiate Schools of Business

  • (ACBSP) Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs

(ACCJC) Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges)

why should you research your teaching3
Why Should You Research Your Teaching?
  • The Pathways Commission

Reform accounting education so that teaching is respected and rewarded as a critical component in achieving each institution’s mission

Pathways Commission. 2012. The Pathways Commission Charting a National Strategy for the Next Generation of Accountants. Sponsoring organizations: The American Accounting Association and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.

what is action research
What is Action Research?
  • A method for improving our teaching practices.
  • “a systematic investigative research method that educators can use to improve aspects of their educational practice”
  • (Paisey & Paisey 2005, p. 1)
  • “an iterative, systematic, analytic way to reflecton what we are doing in class, to evaluateour success at achieving our classroom goals, and to chart the directionof future classroom strategies based on what we have learned.” (Cunningham 2008, p. 2)

Cunningham, B.M. 2008. Using action research to improve learning and the classroom learning environment. Issues in Accounting Education. 23(1): 1-30.

Paisey, C. and N.J. Paisey. 2005. Improving accounting education through the use of action research. Journal of Accounting Education, 23: 1-19.

what is action research1
What is Action Research?
  • A professional learning tool.
  • “a means of constructing and elaborating teacher’s
  • professional knowledge.”
  • (Nofke & Somekh 2009, p. 26)
  • “a strategic approach to knowledge production, integrating a broad array of methods, and methodological approaches in specific ways to create new understandings…”
  • (Levin and Martin 2007, p. 220)

Nofke, S. E. and B. Somekh. 2009. Introduction to Part I in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications.

Levin, M. and A. W. Martin. 2007. The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): 219-229.

what is action research2
What is Action Research?
  • A tool for facilitating change.
  • Key Characteristics of Successful Change Initiatives
  • that are Inherent in Action Research
        • Personnel development
        • Participationand Empowerment
        • Evolutionary development
        • Intensive communication
        • Monitoring, Evaluation and Problem-solving
        • Development of Professional Support Networks

Altricher, H and P. Posch. 2009. Action Research, Professional Development and Systemic Reform in Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research ed. Nofke, S.E. and B. Somekh. London: Sage Publications.

learning by doing action research
Learning by Doing Action Research
  • Teaching is a practice
  • Developing a practice requires
  • Repeated cycles of (teacher) learning
  • Practice
  • Reflection
  • Adjustment of practice

Thompson, M. and L. Goe. 2009. Models for Effective and Scalable Teacher Professional Development. ETS RR-09-07. New York: Educational Testing Service. Available at http://www.ets.org/research/contact.html.

learning by doing action research1
Learning by Doing Action Research

Experiential Learning!

“Action research is learned in action… Experience is an essential part of this learning.”

(Levin and Martin 2007, p. 223)

It may be no more difficult than learning

the cycles of the research itself.

Levin, M. and A. W. Martin. 2007. The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): 219-229.

a model of action research

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

A Model of Action Research
  • Diagnosing
    • Identifying or defining a problem
  • Action Planning
    • Considering alternative courses of action
  • Taking Action
    • Selecting a course of action
  • Evaluating
    • Studying the consequences of an action
  • Specifying Learning
    • Identifying general findings

The Cycles of Action Research

Susman, G. (1983). Action research: A Sociotechnical system perspective. ed. G. Morgan. London: Sage Publications

reflection

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

Reflection

Reflectionguides action, which in turn

guides reflection.

Dick, B. Stringer, E and C. Huxham. 2009. Theory in action research. Action Research, 7(1): 5-12.

reflection1
Reflection

Recalldetails of an event/situation

Attend to the emotions associated with that event/situation

Work to understand the event/situation

Chui, L. R., 2006. Critical Reflection. Action Research, 4(2): 183-203.

using your feelings in action research
Using Your Feelings in Action Research

Action researchers

use feelings

“as a sense, which, like other senses,

convey information”

(Heene 2005, p. 266)

Heene, H. 2005. About feelings in action research: an experiment in first-person inquiry. Action Research, 3(3): 263-274.

slide20

An Example of Reflection:

Diagnosinga Problem/Identifying an Issue

Values

Practices

polling question 2
Polling Question 2
  • Which of the of following have you used to diagnose a problem or issue in your teaching practice?
  • Reflections on
  • my feelings about how a lesson/class went
  • student evaluations of my teaching/course
  • reactions from students (e.g. during class, in e-mails etc)
  • student performance (e.g. on tests, assignments etc)
  • other
reading published literature

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

Reading Published Literature

Read published literature to find theorY…

Levin, M. and A. W. Martin. 2007. The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): 219-229.

participation and collaboration

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

Participation and Collaboration

Action research is participative,

done in collaboration

with others.

The Institutional Review Board (IRB)

Keep it manageable. Keep it in context.

writing in action research

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

Writing in Action Research

Learning how to use

writing in action research

is essential to learning how to

doaction research.

Levin, M. and A. W. Martin. 2007. The praxis of educating action researchers. Action Research, 5(3): 219-229.

writing in action research1

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

Writing in Action Research
  • Writing is
  • a flexible 3-phase process
          • writing down
          • writing up
          • constructing an account

Holly, M. L., 2009. Writing to Learn: A Process for the Curious in Noftke, S and B. Somekh (eds) The Sage Handbook of Educational Action Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

action research is data driven
Action Research is Data-Driven
  • Data
  • Examples
  • Observations
  • Questions in class
  • Scores on quizzes, tests, HW, assignments
  • Meta-data for computer work
  • Student Work—unmarked
  • Student Work—marked and graded
  • Surveys
  • Discussion boards
  • E-mails
  • Teaching journals
  • Action research journals
  • Student learning journals

DIAGNOSING

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

EVALUATING

ACTIONPLANNING

TAKINGACTION

descriptive data
Descriptive Data

Demographic Data

Descriptive Statistics

Sample size

Counts

Means, mode

Standard deviation, variance

Minimum & maximum value, range

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Earned credit hours
  • GPA
  • Transfer status
  • Domestic/International
qualitative analysis
Qualitative Analysis

Characteristics of Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative Analyses Techniques

Documentation of data and data collection process

Organization of data into concepts

Connection of data to show how one concept may influence another

Evaluation ofalternative explanations,use of disconfirming evidence & search for negative cases

  • Focus on meanings rather than quantifiable phenomena
  • Collection of many data on few cases rather than few data on many cases
  • A goal of rich descriptions rather than measurement of specific variables
  • Examples of Qualitative Data Analysis Methods
  • Ethnography
  • Netnography
  • Ethnomethodology
  • Conversation analysis
  • Narrative analysis
  • Grounded theory
  • Qualitative comparative
  • Case-oriented understanding
quantitative data analysis
Quantitative Data Analysis

Testing Differences

Testing Association

Nominal Data

Chi-squared

Ordinal Data

Spearman

Interval/Ratio Data

Pearson

  • Nominal Data
        • Chi-quared, 2 samples, independent
        • McNemar, 2 samples, paired
  • Ordinal Data
        • Mann-Whitney, 2 samples, independent
        • Wilcoxin, 2 samples, paired
        • Kruskal-Wallis, >than 2 samples, independent
        • Friedman, >than 2 samples, related
  • Interval/Ratio Data
        • Independent t-tests, 2 samples, independent
        • Paired t-tests, 2 samples, paired
        • ANOVA, > than 2 samples, independent or related

Types of Quantitative Data

  • Interval/Ratio Data
      • usually measured on a continuous or discrete scale
      • e.g. test scores
  • Ordinal Data
    • often frequencies or counts
    • e.g. grades or grade-points
  • Nominal Data
      • often frequencies or counts
      • e.g. “yes” or “no” responses
polling question 3
Polling Question 3
  • Have you used any data analyses to evaluate data from your classes? If so, which?
  • Analysis of demographic data
  • Descriptive statistics
  • Inferential statistics
  • Qualitative analysis
  • All of the above
  • None of the above
sharing your action research
Sharing Your Action Research

Revisiting

the flexible 3-phrase

writing process

Writing down

Writing up

Constructing an account

SPECIFYINGLEARNING

DIAGNOSING

ACTIONPLANNING

EVALUATING

TAKINGACTION

sharing your action research1
Sharing Your Action Research

Constructing an account

A Research Report

  • Framing(issue identification and context)
  • Choices (rooted in theory)
  • Evaluation
    • Evidence (qualitative as well as quantitative)
    • Criteria (think attestation)

Storytelling or ‘Show’ and ‘Tell’

  • Speak from experience
  • Evocative illustration
sharing your action research2
Sharing Your Action Research
  • American Accounting Association (AAA)

Regional Meetings

The Annual Meeting

The Conference on Teaching and Learning (CTLA)

Round-Tables

Papers

Posters

sharing your action research3
Sharing Your Action Research

Where else can you share your action research?

  • A teaching portfolio
  • Department meetings
  • Teaching retreats
  • Conferences—non-AAA
  • Academic journals
what we covered today
What We Covered Today
  • Why Should You Research Your Teaching?
  • Action Research
  • Sharing Your Action Research
polling question 4
Polling Question 4
  • What is stoppingyou from doing action research?
  • Before today, I didn’t know what action research was
  • I was never trained to do action research
  • I don’t have anyone with whom to collaborate
  • I am not sure this will be accepted as research at my institution
  • Nothing! I can’t wait to get started!