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Trypanosoma cruzi , Cancer, and the Cold War. 1. 2. Grigorii Roskin, c1930. 3. The discoverers of “KR” preparation: Nina Kliueva and Grigorii Roskin, 1946. 4. New York Times headlines, 1946. 5. Parin and Soviet oncologists in the US Surgeon General Office. 6. N. Kliueva and G. Roskin

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N. Kliueva and G. Roskin

Biotherapy of Malignant Tumors

1946

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Murray J. Shear Theodore S. Hauschka

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Lankenau hospital, Philadelphia

National Cancer Institute (NCI)

Bethesda, MD

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Murray J. Shear Theodore S. Hauschka

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H. R. A. Cabral

Institute de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba, Argentina

The tumoricidal effect of Trypanosoma cruzi: its intracellular cycle and the immune response of the host

Medical Hypotheses (2000) 54(1), 1–6

V. D. Kallinikova † , Z. Batmonch, E. G. Kravtsov, L. P. Karpenko, L. V. Pachorukova, and T. A. Ogloblina

Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Moscow State University

Department of Microbiology, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia;

Antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi Accompanying the Antitumoral Action of Lysed Epimastigotes in vivo

Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin, 2008, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 72–76.

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TRYPANOSOMES AND THE BIOTHERAPY OF TUMORS

  • Trypanosomes might disorganize themetabolism of the infected organism and, thus, inhibit the development of tumors, which, according to a belief common at that time, required a large and possibly specific supply of materials from the host-organism.
  • Like malariotherapy, trypanosome infection might stimulate a non-specific immunological reaction that, in turn, could affect implanted tumors.
  • Trypanosomes might intrude into tumorous cells and directly destroy them.
  • Either trypanosomes excreted certain toxins that had a directly destructive effect on tumorous cells, or the host-organism produced antibodies against trypanosomes (or their toxins), which, at the same time, appear co-active against tumorous cells.

Each one or any combination of the four hypothetical factors might play a role in the inhibition of tumor transplants by trypanosome infection.