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Unit 7: Kinetics. Microscale Kinetics Day 2. Unit 7: Kinetics. More on Catalysts. Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?. cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene. I 2. Cis-2-butene. Unit 7: Kinetics. More on Catalysts. Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?.

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Unit 7: Kinetics


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unit 7 kinetics

Unit 7: Kinetics

Microscale Kinetics

Day 2

unit 7 kinetics1
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

unit 7 kinetics2
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

unit 7 kinetics3
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

unit 7 kinetics4
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

unit 7 kinetics5
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

unit 7 kinetics6
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

unit 7 kinetics7
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

unit 7 kinetics8
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics9
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics10
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics11
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics12
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics13
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics14
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

unit 7 kinetics15
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

unit 7 kinetics16
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics17
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics18
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics19
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics20
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics21
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics22
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics23
Unit 7: Kinetics

More on Catalysts

Catalysts speed up reaction rates, how?

cis-2-butene converts to trans-2-butene

I2

Cis-2-butene

Step 1: I2 dissociates

Step 2: I attaches to C breaking the double bone

Catalyst

Step 3: Single bond is now free to rotate

Intermediate

Step 4: Iodine is removed and double bond reforms

Product

unit 7 kinetics24
Unit 7: Kinetics

Reaction Mechanisms:

The sequence of bond-making and bond breaking steps that occur during a reaction.

Refer back to the cis to trans conversion of butene…

I2

unit 7 kinetics25
Unit 7: Kinetics

Reaction Mechanisms:

The sequence of bond-making and bond breaking steps that occur during a reaction.

Br2 + 2 NO  2 BrNO

What would it take for this to be a single step reaction???

(Think collision theory)

Br2

NO

NO

Since this is unlikely, the following mechanism is proposed …

unit 7 kinetics26
Unit 7: Kinetics

Molecularity of Mechanism Steps:

The decomposition of ozone:

2 O3 3 O2

Termolecular and beyond:

unit 7 kinetics27
Unit 7: Kinetics

Rates of Mechanism Steps:

Each individual step has its own rate, and therefore its own rate law.

Stoichiometry can only be used to write rate laws for mechanism steps!!! (NOT OVERALL REACTIONS)

unit 7 kinetics28
Unit 7: Kinetics

Practice Problem:

3 ClO- ClO3- + 2Cl-

Proposed mechanism:

Step 1: Pt + 2 ClO- PtClO2-+ Cl-

Step 2: PtClO2- + ClO- Pt + ClO3- + Cl-

a. What is the molecularity of each step?

b. Write the rate equation for each step?

c. Show that the sum of the steps gives the overall reaction.

d. Identify any catalysts and/or intermediates present.

unit 7 kinetics29
Unit 7: Kinetics

Sample AP Multiple Choice:

The energy diagram for R  P is shown above. The addition of a catalyst to this reaction would cause a change in which of the indicated energy differences?

I

II

III

  • I only
  • II only
  • III only
  • I and II only
  • I, II and III