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Semantics & Pragmatics. Jorge Zúñiga S. Paradigmas Lingüísticos. What is meaning?. Nature of meaning What it really means. Dictionary definitions: Prescriptivism Descriptivism What is taken into consideration by linguists. Process Dictionary definition Understanding the meaning

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semantics pragmatics

Semantics & Pragmatics

Jorge Zúñiga S.

ParadigmasLingüísticos

what is meaning
What is meaning?
  • Nature of meaning
  • What it really means
slide3

Dictionary definitions:

Prescriptivism

Descriptivism

What is taken into consideration by linguists

slide4

Process

Dictionary definition

Understanding the meaning

Meaning of the word and their definition (words used)

e.g.

ECTOMERE: “a blastomere that develops into ectoderm”

slide5

How do dictionaries function?

DIVINE “being or having the nature of a deity”

DEITY “divinity”

PRIDE “the quality or state of being proud”

PROUD “feeling or showing pride”

slide6

MENTAL IMAGES

  • “Mona Lisa”
  • “Lecture”
  • The teacher’s viewpoint
  • The students’ viewpoint
  • “Forget”
  • The matter of what image is attached to this.
slide7

The important role played by the referent

Name: Bill Clinton (referent)

Phrase: the winner of the 1992 U.S. presidential election

Bill Clinton is married to Hillary Clinton.

The winner of the 1992 U.S. presidential election is married to Hillary Clinton.

(The same thing)

Robin wanted to know if Bill Clinton was the winner of the 1992 U.S. presidential election

Robin wanted to know if Bill Clinton was Bill Clinton.

slide8

Meaning relationships

Synonym: iftheyhave the same meaning

Homonymy:different meanings sharing the same form

Antonyms: words in somesenseopposite in meaning

Entailment: one meaning holdsanother meaning

Homophony: samesoundsdifferent meaning

Polisemy: severalmeanings for the sameword

Hiperonymy: inclusionrelationship (cat, dog, seagull=animal)

slide9

Words’ meaning can be broken down into smaller parts known as meaning components or semantic features

slide10

Semantic decomposition or componential analysis

“The sheriff killed Jesse”

“The sheriff killed Jesse, but Jesse is still alive”

slide11

There is no given connection between word and meaning.

Word:Chair

Chaise (French)

Stuhl (German)

Sèdia (Italian)

Silla (Spanish)

slide12

TYPES OF MEANINGS:

Conceptual meaning: basic and essential components of meaning.

Associative meaning: stylistic meaning of words.

slide13

Semantic features

There is certain “oddness”

Why does it happen to us?

intended speaker meaning
Intended speaker meaning…

« FALL BABY SALE »

slide16

SPEECH ACTS THEORY

FormsFunctions

Did you eat the food?Question

Eat the food (please)Command (request)

You ate the foodStatement

REQUESTING-COMMANDING-QUESTIONING-INFORMING

direct speech act v s indirect speech act
Direct Speech Act v/s Indirect Speech Act

Can you ride a bicycle?

Can you pass the salt? (asking or requesting?)