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Nutritional Guidelines for Osteoporosis. Sisira Siribaddana Director SLTR Staff Specialist in Medicine SJGH. Introduction. Guidelines Sri Lankan research Post guidelines development. Population Projections for Sri Lanka. Cost of Current Therapy for Osteoporosis. Estrogen Calcium

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nutritional guidelines for osteoporosis

Nutritional Guidelines for Osteoporosis

Sisira Siribaddana

Director SLTR

Staff Specialist in Medicine SJGH

introduction

Introduction

Guidelines

Sri Lankan research

Post guidelines development

slide5

Cost of Current Therapy for Osteoporosis

Estrogen

Calcium

Alendronate

Calcitonin

Raloxifene

0.625 mg

1000 mg†

5-10 mg

200 IU

60 mg

$400/yr*

$35/yr

$750/yr

$750/yr

$750/yr

*Includes usual cost of progestin necessary for most women for uterine protection.

†In addition to the average 500 mg dietary source.

From the National Osteoporosis Foundation, 1998.

consensus development conference
Consensus Development Conference
  • SLMA
  • College of Physicians
  • College of Ob & Gyn
  • College of Pediatrics
  • Orthopedic Association
  • NGO – Rotary and Sarvodaya
contributorship
Contributorship

NUTRITIONAL SUB-COMMITTEE

  • Dr Antoinette Herath (Rheumatologist)
  • Dr. Nilangi Devapura (Epidemiologist)
  • Mrs. N Iqbal (Nutritionist )
  • Dr. Chandrani Piyasena (Nutritionist)
  • Mrs. Anoma Ratnayake (Nutritionist )
  • Dr. Lalith Wijeratne (Rheumatologist)

Panelists in the consensus development process

publication ethics
Publication Ethics
  • As research into Osteoporosis is inadequate the guidelines have borrowed heavily from abroad
  • Disclosure of the conflict of interests – As charity funding NA
evidence based guidelines
Evidence Based Guidelines
  • Literature search with search engine
  • Grading of evidence
  • A – RCT or L Cohort > 3000
  • B – L Cohort or Case control > 200
  • C – Case control or Cross Sec.>300
  • D – Cross sectional < 300
breaking the 400 mg barrier
Breaking the 400 mg barrier
  • “Adaptation to low Ca intake in reference to the calcium requirements of a tropical population” Lucius Nichollas & Ananda Nimalasuriya-Observational study in 1939
  • 3 large RCT in 1990’s with long term follow up
  • WHO guidelines recommending 1000
usa study
USA Study
  • 389 men and women over age >63
  • treated with calcium (500 mg per day) and vitamin D (700 IU per day)
  • decreased rate of non-vertebral fractures with only a small increase in BMD of the lumbar spine (0.9%), femoral neck (1.2%), and total body (1.2%)

N Engl J Med 1997;337:70-6

slide15

Reduction of Nonvertebral Fracture with Calcium and Vitamin D

Placebo

Calcium + Vitamin D

14

12

10

8

%

Fracture

6

4

2

0

6

12

18

24

30

36

Months

p=0.02

Dawson-Hughes B et al, N Engl J Med 1997;337:670.

french study
French Study
  • 3270 institutionalized women
  • treated with calcium (1200 mg per day) and vitamin D (800 IU per day) for 3 yrs
  • risk of hip fracture was reduced by 30%
  • reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism
  • increase in BMD of the femoral neck

BMJ 1994;308:1081-2

summary of the guidelines
Summary of the guidelines
  • Adequate calcium intake
    • teenagers and postmenopasal women not taking estrogen need 1,500 mg of calcium per day
    • other adults need 1,000 mg per day
  • Vitamin D
  • Adequate exercise
indo asians
Indo Asians
  • Hip fractures occur at a relatively earlier age compared to Europids
  • Higher male-to-female ratio
  • Shorter hip axis length
  • High prevalence of fluorosis
slide20

Determining the Prevalence of Fragility Fracture Rates Calcium Intake and BUA in Suburban Sri Lankan Population(Siribaddana, Deshabandu, Hewage, Fernando)

  • One year after hip fracture, 40% of patients unable to walk independently
  • About 40% Caucasian women suffer at least one osteoporotic fracture after the age of 50 years
aim methods 1
Aim & Methods -1
  • Calcium intake from SQFFQ.
  • To measure the BUA & Stiffness using “Lunar Achilles” ultrasound.
  • 700 females from The SJU community survey.
aim methods 2
Aim & Methods -2
  • Randomization based on streets from 3 PHW areas
  • All house hold members over 20 years invited
  • Quality assurance through repeated measures of 15 medical students
ultrasound measurement of the bone
Ultrasound Measurement of the Bone
  • Inexpensive and radiation free scanning device for low bone mass.
  • Qualitative aspects that determine the bone strength.
  • Transmission of sound through tissue leads to alterations in two acoustic properties, wave velocity and wave amplitude.
discussion 1
Discussion-1
  • Age regression of stiffness index.
  • =70.179 + age (-0.319).
  • BUA & stiffness declines dramatically after 50 years.
  • Ref value 20-30 year age group.
  • T scores calculated.
  • Prevalence over 20 years 3.2%.
discussion 2
Discussion-2
  • Ca. intake is high but SD is also high (500).
  • implying a large variation in Ca. intake.
  • Despite high Ca intake low BUA & stiffness.
  • Participants are overestimating or low-bioavailability of Ca.?
  • Lack of physical activity ?
glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis
Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis
  • The most common secondary form of osteoporosis
  • Systemic skeletal disease
    • Associated with long-term steroid use
    • Serious side effects of glucocorticoids
      • Bone loss resulting in GIO
      • Increase in fracture risk
glucocorticoid use and fracture risk
Glucocorticoid Use and Fracture Risk

6

All nonvertebral

5.18

Forearm

5

Hip

Vertebral

4

Relative risk of fracture

compared with control

3

2.59

2.27

1.77

2

1.64

1.55

1.36

1.19

1.17

1.1

1.04

0.99

1

0

n = 2192 531 236 191 2486 526 494 440 1665 273 328 400

Low dose

Medium dose

High dose

(<2.5 mg/d)

(2.5–7.5 mg/d)

(>7.5 mg/d)

van Staa TP et al, 2000.

options for prevention and treatment of gio
Options for Prevention and Treatment of GIO:
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplementation
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Bisphosphonates
    • Risedronate: FDA approved for prevention and treatment
    • Alendronate: FDA approved for treatment
  • Calcitonin
  • PTH
calcium vitamin d in gio
Calcium, Vitamin D in GIO:
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplementation
    • Should be offered to all patients on glucocorticoids
    • Helpful alone with low, medium glucocorticoid doses
    • Not effective alone with medium, high doses
gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls lancet 2001
Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls- Lancet 2001
  • Milk extracted Ca caused long standing increase in bone mass accrual which lasts beyond the end of supplementation
  • RCT-double blind & placebo controlled – 116 of the 144 girls followed
  • Sponsored by Swiss NSF and Nestec
way forwards
Way Forwards
  • Audit of implementation of the guidelines
  • More research

That’s all folks