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Human Geography By James Rubenstein. Chapter 10 Key Issue 1 Where Did Agriculture Originate?. Origins of Agriculture. The origins cannot be documented with certainty, because it began before recorded history.

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human geography by james rubenstein
Human GeographyBy James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 10
  • Key Issue 1
  • Where Did Agriculture Originate?

S. Mathews

origins of agriculture
Origins of Agriculture
  • The origins cannot be documented with certainty, because it began before recorded history.
  • Improvements in cultivating plants and domesticating animals evolved over thousands of years.

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agriculture
Agriculture
  • The deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.

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slide4
Crop
  • Any plant cultivated by people.

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hunters and gatherers
Hunters and Gatherers
  • Before the invention of agriculture, humans obtained the food they needed through hunting, fishing, or gathering.
  • They lived in small groups.
  • Frequency and direction of movement depended on the migration of game and the seasonal growth of plants.

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contemporary hunters and gatherers
Contemporary Hunters and Gatherers
  • Less than 0.005 percent of the world's population, still survive by hunting and gathering.
  • Contemporary hunting and gathering societies are isolated groups, but provide insight into human customs that prevailed in prehistoric times.

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invention of agriculture
Invention of Agriculture
  • Over thousands of years, plant cultivation apparently evolved from a combination of accident and deliberate experiment.

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slide8
Prehistoric people may have originally domesticated animals for non-economic reasons, such as sacrifices and other religious ceremonies, or household pets.

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vegetative planting
Vegetative Planting
  • Reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
  • The earliest form of plant cultivation.

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seed agriculture
Seed Agriculture
  • Reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
  • Practiced by most farmers today.

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location of agricultural hearths
Location of Agricultural Hearths
  • Agriculture probably did not originate in one location, but began in multiple, independent hearths.

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location of first vegetative planting
Location of First Vegetative Planting
  • Probably originated in Southeast Asia.
  • Food primarily obtained by fishing, so people may have been more sedentary.
  • First domesticated plants probably included roots, and tree crops.

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slide13
Other early hearths may have emerged independently in West Africa and northwestern South America.

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location of first seed agriculture
Location of First Seed Agriculture
  • Probably originated in western India, northern China, and Ethiopia.
  • Diffused quickly from India to Southwest Asia, where important early advances were made, including the domestication of wheat and barley.

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slide16
Southwest Asia was first to integrate seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.
  • This integration of plants and animals is a fundamental element of modem agriculture.

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diffusion of seed agriculture in the eastern hemisphere
Diffusion of Seed Agriculture in the Eastern Hemisphere
  • Plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia spread into Europe, North Africa, and India.
  • Millet diffused from northern China to South Asia and Southeast Asia.
  • Rice probably came from Southeast Asia.

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diffusion of seed agriculture in the western hemisphere
Diffusion of Seed Agriculture in the Western Hemisphere
  • Corn and squash originated around southern Mexico.
  • Squash, beans, and cotton probably first domesticated in northern Peru.
  • Herd animals were unknown until introduced by Europeans.

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seed hearth
Seed Hearth

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classifying agricultural regions
Classifying Agricultural Regions
  • The most fundamental differences in agricultural practices are between those in LDCs and those in MDCs.

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subsistence agriculture
Subsistence Agriculture
  • The production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer’s family.
  • Most predominant in LDCs.

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commercial agriculture
Commercial Agriculture
  • The production of food primarily for sale off the farm.
  • Primarily found in MDCs.

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five principal features of farming
Five Principal Features of Farming
  • Purpose
  • Percentage of farmers in the labor force
  • Use of machinery
  • Farm size
  • Relationship to other businesses

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purpose of farming
Purpose of Farming
  • In LDCs most people produce food for their own consumption. Surplus may be sold, but may not even exist some years.
  • On commercial farming, farmers grow crops and raise animals primarily for sale.

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percentage of farmers in the labor force
Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force
  • Less than 5% of the workers are engaged directly in farming in MDCs.
  • 55% or more of population are engaged in agriculture in LDCs.
  • Only 2% of labor force are farmers in the United States and Canada.

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use of machinery
Use of Machinery
  • Machinery replaced manual labor on farms in MDCs and allow a small number of farmers to feed many people.
  • Transportation improvements and electronic devices aid in the movement of crops and cattle to market more efficiently.

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farm size
Farm Size
  • Commercial farms are large as a consequence of mechanization; tractors and other machinery allow a large area to be cultivated in a small amount of time.
  • Subsistence farms are small due to dependence on manual labor; a family can cultivate only a small area at a time.

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prime agricultural land
Prime Agricultural Land
  • The most productive farmland.
  • In the U.S. and other MDCs, the most productive farmland is being replaced by suburban areas surrounding large urban centers.

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relationship of farming to other businesses
Relationship of Farming to Other Businesses
  • Although farmers are less than 2% of the U.S. labor force, more than 20% of U.S. labor works in food processing, packaging, storing, distributing, and retailing.

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agribusiness
Agribusiness
  • Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.

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mapping agricultural regions
Mapping Agricultural Regions
  • Attempts have been made to outline the agriculture currently practiced based on climate, but
  • environmental determinism has discouraged placing too much emphasis climate, and
  • cultural preferences explain other differences.

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