Fragments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fragments

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  1. Fragments What is a sentence fragment? An incomplete sentence REMEMBER: A sentence has a subject, verb and a complete thought – a fragment is missing one or more of these things. Click speaker icon for sound

  2. What causes us to create fragments? #1 of 2 • Dependent clauses – primarily when we read an independent clause followed by dependent clause, it sounds like a complete thought. • Poor: You won’t pass the exam. Unless you study.

  3. What causes us to create fragments? #2 of 2 • You must be able to say each sentence by itself and it must make perfect sense. The most common way to correct fragments is to attach the dependent clause to the independent clause. If the dependent clause comes first, you’ll need a comma. • Better: Unless you study, you won’t pass the exam. OR You won’t pass the exam unless you study.

  4. A second cause for fragments #1 of 3 • Verbal phrases [to, ing, or ed/en fragments] Primarily when we read an independent clause followed by a verbal phrase, it sounds like a complete thought. • Poor: Eric was often seen at the beach. Surfing the big waves.

  5. A second cause for fragments #2 of 3 The easiest way to correct this fragment is to attach it to the independent clause. • Better: Eric was often seen at the beach, surfing the big waves.

  6. A second cause for fragments #3 of 3 • However, you could also correct it by adding a subject /verb to the sentence. • Better:Eric was often seen at the beach. He loved surfing the big waves.

  7. Special note on to/ed/en/ing fragments #1 of 2 • ‘to’ –ed & -enfragments attached at the beginning of a sentence require a comma, but they don’t need one if attached at the end. • ‘ing’ fragments must always have a comma whether they come at the beginning or end!

  8. Special note on to/ed/en/ing fragments #2 of 2 • Good:To order the text, a student should use the website. Or:A student should use the website to order the text. • Good :Encouraged by the laughter of schoolmates, Tommy joined the game. Or:Tommy enjoyed the game encouraged by the laugter of schoolmates. • Good :Laughing at his friend, Tom snorted his milk. Or:Tom snorted his milk, laughing at his friend.

  9. Another cause for fragments • Missing subject fragments – are missing a subject. They can be corrected by adding a subject or connecting to an independent clause. Poor: Mary hated the ocean. But liked to swim in the pool. Better: Mary hated the ocean, but she liked to swim in the pool. OR Mary hated the ocean but liked to swim in the pool. OR Mary hated the ocean. She liked to swim in a pool.

  10. Yet another cause for fragments #1 of 2 • Example & Exception fragments • [such as, including, for example & unless, without] Poor: Thom and Jerry enjoy many sports. Such as hiking, biking, and rock climbing. Remember, you must be able to say each sentence by itself, and it must make perfect sense. If it is missing something, you must add what is missing [subject/verb]

  11. Yet another cause for fragments #2 of 2 Add the missing subject and verb • Better: Thom and Jerry enjoy many sports. They like hiking, biking and rock climbing. OR: You can connect the dependent clause to an independent clause. • Better: Thom and Jerry enjoy many sports, such as hiking, biking, and rock climbing.

  12. Still more causes for fragments #1 0f 2 • Prepositional Phrase Frags – Remember Prepositions often show place [what a marble can do to a mountain – go over, under, through etc...] • The most common way to correct this is to attach the prepositional phrase to the independent clause.

  13. Still more causes for fragments #2 0f 2 • If the prepositional phrase comes first, you’ll need a comma. Poor: Under the bush. A small dog was hiding. Better: Under the bush, a small dog was hiding. OR: A small dog was hiding under the bush.