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  1. Activity: Entrance Activity • Read and complete the Anticipation Guide provided to you.

  2. Math and Science Literacy Skills: Tools for Thinking and Learning Diane Kinkade Lynne Ramage Eileen Spalla Christine Troup

  3. Schedule • 9-10:30 • Anticipation guide • Text readability • Text structure • Background knowledge • Vocabulary • 11-12 • Vocabulary • Comprehension • 1-2 • Comprehension • Writing

  4. What are we doing today? • Identify and address the unique challenges of reading math and science • Build awareness of and learn practical tools that apply to • Text structure and features • Background knowledge • Vocabulary • Comprehension strategies • Writing strategies

  5. What is reading? "Reading is a constructive process in which the reader interacts with text, using prior knowledge and experience to make connections, generate hypotheses, and make sense of what s/he reads.” Barton, M.L.,& Heidema, C. (2000).

  6. Reading in content areas "Teaching reading in the content areas is not so much about teaching students basic reading skills as it is about teaching students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning“ Barton, M. L., & Heidema, C. (2000).

  7. “Problems in reading non-fiction texts are most acute in the content areas of science, social studies, health, and math, in which students are expected to read a non-fiction text and acquire new information from it.” Gillet and Temple (2000) in Robb.

  8. Text Readability

  9. What is text readabililty? “The level of ease or difficulty with which text material can be understood by a particular reader who is reading that text for a specific purpose.” “Readability” Dr. Pikulski, 2002, www.eduplace.com/state/authorPikulski.pdf)

  10. Activity: What are some of the factors that affect readability? • In a group of 4 or 5 • Skim the text • Answer this question: what would make this text challenging for a student in x grade? • Make a list • Compare your list to what we researched

  11. What Vocabulary Abstract concepts Sentence length makes Word length Density of ideas science and math texts Grammatical features Must proficiently decode words and symbols Text structure challenging directionality for Access (text) features students? Links to prior knowledge

  12. Implications • Don’t take grade-level texts at face value • Teachers should evaluate texts for challenges • Teachers need to assess text and to plan instructional activities to support student success

  13. Partner Discussion • Talk to a partner and tell him/her one thing you will remember about text readability in math or science.

  14. Text Structure

  15. What is text structure? • The way text is organized • In a sentence • In a paragraph • In a section • In a chapter • throughout the book

  16. What are some common text structures found in math and science texts? • Description • Sequence / Process • Comparison/contrast • Cause-effect • Problem-solution • Generalization/principle • Hypothesis/support

  17. Why should I care about text structure? “Teaching students how to recognize and represent the organizational patterns (text structures) commonly used by authors …can significantly influence students’ learning.” Barton, 2001, 20.

  18. Implications “[T]eachers should preview their text materials to identify whether the main ideas are clearly written and appear in a consistent location throughout the text.” Barton, 2001, 17

  19. Activity – Text Structure Sort • For this activity, work with a partner next to you to analyze text structures, function, signal words, comprehension cues and questions, and visual organizers. • Use the small pieces to complete the table.

  20. Examples of text/access features • Headings • Bold • Italics • Objectives/ purposes • Summaries • Graphs • Diagrams • Cutaways • Graphics

  21. Other teacher considerations “One feature of many mathematics texts is that concepts are introduced but not discussed again for several chapters…concepts are developed and practiced and followed by a period of disuse” Barton 2001

  22. Activity: Getting to know your textbook • Look through one chapter and consider the text features: • Which are “red lights,” “yellow lights” and “green lights” for students? For teachers? • Do students understand the purpose of the features? • Discuss with those at your table how these would inform your instruction • Share one idea with the whole group

  23. Reflection: Quick write • Write about one important thing you will remember about either text structures or text features

  24. Background Knowledge There are 10 kinds of people in the world; those that understand binary code, and those who don’t.

  25. Background knowledge video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RiP-ijdxqEc

  26. Summary points from Willingham’s video • Once students learn decoding, they can decode anything. • But they can’t understand anything they read. Comprehension requires prior knowledge. • Attempts to boost comprehension through reading strategies alone will fail. Daniel Willingham, Cognitive Psychologist, University of Virginia

  27. Ways to build, access, and assess background knowledge • Read alouds, videos, guest speakers, field trips, gallery walk • Anticipation guide • KWL and variations • Wordstorming

  28. Wordstorming • Title of article is “Plastic Unfantastic” • As a small group (table), come up with words you think will be mentioned in this article that start with P, G or R

  29. Reflection on building background knowledge • On a post-it note, write down one idea you’d like to share about building or activating background knowledge. • Post it on the graffiti board before the break.

  30. Vocabulary

  31. Activity :Read-Pair-Share • Read what research has to say about vocabulary and vocabulary instruction. • Choose three findings that resonate with you • With a partner, share which quotes you chose and why

  32. Vocabulary “A high school chemistry text can contain some 3000 new vocabulary terms – far more than are taught in most foreign language classes,” (Barton, 2001, iii).

  33. Remember this? Math texts contain more concepts per word per sentence and per paragraph than any other kind of text.”’ (Brennnan and Dunlap, 1985; Culyer, 1988; Thomas, 1988, as cited in Barton, 2000).

  34. Level of Word Knowledge • “[L]earners can very quickly get a sense of a word’s meaning…But full understanding…occurs only over time and multiple encounters.” (Beck et al, 2002).

  35. Which vocabulary do I teach? Ideally, selecting critical vocabulary words is a group process • Department • Grade • School • Vertical teams

  36. Which vocabulary do I teach? • Useful and interesting words • Target words for instruction that are • Necessary for understanding the text • AND • Essential to understanding topic • not just

  37. Three types of math and science words Content-specific vocabulary • Only found in this subject area (i.e. quadratic, coefficient, hypotenuse) Shared meaning • General vocab = math / science vocab • (dollars, cents, process, and science add) Different meanings • General vocab does not equal math/science vocab • Odd, plane, prime, gravity, radical, difference, product,

  38. A Six-Step Process for Effective Vocab. Instruction: An overview

  39. A Six-Step Process for Effective Vocabulary Instruction • Step 1: The teacher provides a description, explanation, or example of the new term.

  40. Step 2: Students restate the description, explanation or example in their own words

  41. Step 3: Create a nonlinguistic representation of the term

  42. Step 4: Periodically*, engage students in activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms

  43. Step 5: Periodically*, ask students to discuss the terms with one another • Main goal is for students to help each other identify and clear up misconceptions and confusion

  44. Step 6: Periodically*, involve students in [meaningful] games that allow them to play with the terms • Stimulates their interest and enthusiasm about vocabulary as well as provide multiple exposures to terms

  45. Sample vocabulary term Proper fraction

  46. Sample Notebook set-up

  47. Example of step 4:Word Wall Activity • List-group-label • Connect 2 • Vobackulary

  48. Other activitiesfor deepening understanding Rotate through the four stations to explore activities for deepening word understanding. • Poems for 2 voices and Acrostic Poems • Frayer model • Foldables • Cube game

  49. Reflection Answer one of these questions: • Why is it important to follow through on all six steps? • What is a good first step for you to use this six-step strategy to teach vocabulary?