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NZ commitment under the Kyoto Protocol – key issues for consideration from the perspective of the Montreal Protocol PowerPoint Presentation
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IGCI. Climate change: Future international action. NZ commitment under the Kyoto Protocol – key issues for consideration from the perspective of the Montreal Protocol Janet F. Bornman, International Global Change Institute, IGCI University of Waikato.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

IGCI

Climate change: Future international action

NZ commitment under the Kyoto Protocol

– key issues for consideration

from the perspective of the Montreal Protocol

Janet F. Bornman, International Global Change Institute, IGCI University of Waikato

UNEP: Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, EEAP

Co-chairs: Janet F. Bornman, Xiaoyan Tang, Jan van der Leun

Assessment of effects of O3 depletion & climate change interaction on:Ozone and UV changes – Health – Terrestrial ecosystemsAquatic ecosystems – Biogeochemical cycles Air Quality – Materials

slide2

Montreal Protocol

1974: emissions of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) were depleting the stratospheric ozone layer

1980s: thinning of the ozone layer over Antarctica

- “ozone hole”

Thinning has occurred over every continent

1987: production of controlled ODS

- more than 1.8 million tonnes/year

2005: - reduced to 83,000 tonnes

slide3

Montreal Protocol, MP

16 September 1987

24 countries signed the initial MP on substances that deplete the ozone layer

Today, twenty years later

191 countries have ratified the MP

-committed to meeting strict time-bound reduction obligations for each of the ca 100 substances controlled by the Protocol

Today: 95% reduction achieved

The work of the MP is not yet finished

Predictions for full recovery to pre-1980 levels rely on assumptions of full implementation of the MP

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“The Montreal Protocol is working. The concentrations of ozone depleting substances in the atmosphere are now decreasing”

Assessment Panels

slide5

Montreal Protocol, MP

  • Major outcomes
  • protection of health and the environment
  • reductions achieved by the MP have supported efforts addressing global climate change and the Kyoto Protocol
  • Reason:
  • -most ODS are also potent global warming gases
  • The ozone layer is projected to return to pre-1980 levels by 2050 to 2075
  • The USA estimates that by 2165, actions to protect and restore the ozone layer will have prevented 6.3 million skin cancer deaths and produced US$ 4.2 trillion in societal health benefits in the USA
slide6

What can the Kyoto Protocol and amendments

beyond 2012 learn from the MP?

  • Partnership with industry - invaluable
  • more climate/environment friendly alternatives
  • dissemination of information on new methods and technologies

Assessment panels on science, environmental effects, technology and economic issues

Key roles:

- independent assessments

- Responding also to specific inquiries by the MP Parties

Multilateral Fund

Since 1990, provided support to developing countries to enable them to meet their reduction obligations under the Protocol

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The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations, NGO

Non-compliance Regime

Not often thought of as a partner!

Includes an Implementation Committee

- works together with countries facing difficulties to manage action plans with time specific benchmarks for helping countries come into compliance with the MP

Definite deadlines for developed and developing countries

Allowance for ”critical use exemptions”, but with time limits

slide9

NZ International negotiations

  • Kyoto flaws: participation of developing countries
  • No clear commitment to specific reductions, just agreements
  • Reasons: also flawed or should be approached differently
  • Priorities are economic growth and poverty reduction
  • Industrialised countries consume far more energy, producing far more greenhouse gases
  • Since the Industrial Revolution, Europe and North America have produced 85% of the human-induced CO2in the atmosphere today
slide10

Key points for NZ to argue for

  • Participation of all countries in the Kyoto Protocol
  • First step: all developed countries on board in an alliance
  • At present too short a time-frame to meet targets
  • Targets/costs are unbalanced among countries
  • (The EU can average emissions among its members)
  • Industry needs to be firmly involved – in NZ and globally
  • -major technology ”fixes”, tax benefits
  • Well structured multilateral fund aimed at helping developing countries meet firm targets on time
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The Montreal ProtocolKyoto Protocolis working. The concentrations of CO2 ozone depleting substances in the atmosphere are now decreasing