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World Politics in the 21st Century. Second Edition W. Raymond Duncan Barbara Jancar-Webster Bob Switky. Chapter One The Importance of International Relations. Figure 1.3 Eight Thousand Years of Changes in the Earth’s Forest Cover:

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world politics in the 21st century

World Politics in the 21st Century

Second Edition

W. Raymond Duncan

Barbara Jancar-Webster

Bob Switky

chapter one the importance of international relations
Chapter OneThe Importance of International Relations

Figure 1.3 Eight Thousand Years of Changes in the Earth’s Forest Cover:

The map compares areas of the planet covered by forests 8000 years ago and in 1998. Which continent has lost the most of its original forests?

Source: World Resources Institute, Forest Initiative Project (http://www.wri/org/ffi/maps/).

chapter two the state and its role in the international system
Chapter TwoThe State and Its Role in the International System

Figure 2.2 A Multipolar System

chapter two the state and its role in the international system1
Chapter TwoThe State and Its Role in the International System

Figure 2.3 Unipolar World on the International System-as-a-Whole Level of Analysis and a Multipolar World at the Regional Level of Analysis

chapter two the state and its role in the international system2
Chapter TwoThe State and Its Role in the International System

Figure 2.5 Russia: The Center and the Periphery

Source: University of Texas Library Online (www.lib.texas.edu/maps/commonwealth/russiaaddivisions.jpg).

chapter three power factors in international relations
Chapter Three Power Factors in International Relations

Figure 3.1 China and the Yangtze River

chapter three power factors in international relations1
Chapter ThreePower Factors in International Relations

Figure 3.2 Global Illiteracy Rates

Source: John L. Allen, Student Atlas of World Politics, Fourth Edition, (Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000), p. 66.

chapter three power factors in international relations2
Chapter Three Power Factors in International Relations

Figure 3.3 Population Growth Rates

Source: John L. Allen, Student Atlas of World Politics, Fourth Edition, (Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000), p. 60.

chapter three power factors in international relations3
Chapter Three Power Factors in International Relations

Figure 3.4 An Age of Bipolarity: The Cold War ca. 1970

Source: John L. Allen, Student Atlas of World Politics, Fourth Edition, (Guilford, CT: Dushkin /McGraw-Hill, 2000), p. 26.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.1 Tools for Foreign Policy Implementation

Source: The United States Naval War College, National Security Decision Making Department, Case Study, 1992-1993.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution1
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.2 Map of Cold War Alignments

Source: John L. Allen, Student Atlas of World Politics, Fourth Edition, (Guilford, CT: Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000), p. 21.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution2
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.3 Ethnic Distribution of Former Yugoslavia

Source: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, Strategic Survey, 1990-1991.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution3
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.4 Foreign Policy input-Output Model

Source: David K. Hall, “An Introduction to Policy Making and Implementation,” The United States Naval War College, National Security Decision Making Department, Case Study, 1992-1993, p. 3.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution4
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.5 Rational Actor [States] Model

Source: The United States Naval War College, National Security Decision Making Department, Case Study, 1992-1993.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution5
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.6 Organizational Model of Foreign Policy Decision Making

Source: The United States Naval War College, National Security Decision Making Department, Case Study, 1992-1993.

chapter four foreign policy formation and execution6
Chapter FourForeign Policy Formation and Execution

Figure 4.7 Political Process Model

Source: The United States Naval War College, National Security Decision Making Department, Case Study, 1992-1993.

chapter five intergovernmental actors
Chapter FiveIntergovernmental Actors

Figure 5.1 Relationship of Assessments to Voting Strength in the

General Assembly

Source: Lawrence Zirling, Robert E. Riggs, and Jack C. Piano, The United Nations: International Organization and

World Politics. Third Edition (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace & Company, 2000), p. 61.

Reproduced by permission of the publisher.

chapter five intergovernmental actors1
Chapter FiveIntergovernmental Actors

Figure 5.2 Europe: Distinguishing EU Members,

Applicant States, Date of Joining/Application, Non-EU States

Source: European Commission from “Europe” Survey, The Economist, October 23, 1999, p. 4.

chapter five intergovernmental actors2
Chapter FiveIntergovernmental Actors

Figure 5.3 Estimated Proven Reserves of Oil

Source: From “BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy, 2000.” The Economist, July 15, 2000.

chapter six corporate and nongovernmental actors
Chapter SixCorporate and Nongovernmental Actors

Figure 6.1 Growth of NGOs (1956-1999)

Source: Union for International Associations as quoted in “Swarming: Non-governmental International Organizations,” The Economist, December 11, 1999, p. 20.

chapter six corporate and nongovernmental actors1
Chapter SixCorporate and Nongovernmental Actors

Figure 6.2 Map of China and Tibet

Source: A. Tom Grunfeild, The Making of Modern Tibet (New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.) 1997, p. ix.

chapter seven political geography
Chapter SevenPolitical Geography

Figure 7.1 Major Axes of the Continent

Source: Jared Diamond, Guns, Germans, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies (New York: W.W. Norton, 1998), p. 177.

chapter seven political geography1
Chapter SevenPolitical Geography

Figure 7.2 The Fertile Crescent

Source: www.fsmitha.com/hl/map00fe.html

chapter seven political geography2
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.3 Income Received by the Wealthiest 5 Percent of the Population

(Percent of Total Income)

Source: IDB calculations based on Deininger and Squire (1996).

chapter seven political geography3
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.3(b) Income Received by the Poorest 30 Percent of the Population

(Percent of Total Income)

Source: IDB calculations based on Deininger and Squire (1996).

chapter seven political geography4
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.4 Shapes of States Belgium: A Compact State

Source: http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geog1014/topics/108States/shapes.html

chapter seven political geography5
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.4(b) Shapes of States Vietnam: An Elongated State

Source: http://www.mapquest.com/atlas/main.edp?print=vietnam

chapter seven political geography6
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.4 Shapes of States South Africa: A Perforated State

Source: http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geog1014/topics/108States/shape.html.

chapter seven political geography7
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.4(b) Shapes of States Indonesia: A Fragmented State

Source: http://www.cyber.vt.edu/geog1014/topics/108States/shape.html.

chapter seven political geography8
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.4 Shapes of States Afghanistan: A Protruded State

Source: http://www.mapquest.com/atlas/main.adp?print=afghanis

chapter seven political geography9
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.5 Volcanoes and Earthquakes

Source: H. J. de Blij and Peter O. Miller, Physical Geography of the Global Environment, Second Edition

(New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1996), p. 341.

chapter seven political geography10
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.6 Land-locked Countries

Source: http//www.cyber.vt.edu/geog1014/topics/108States/neighbor.html

chapter seven political geography11
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.8 The Gobi Desert

Source: http://chinapage.com/map/map.html

chapter seven political geography12
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.9 Cuba’s Proximity to the United States

Source: Department of State and Department of Defense, The Challenge to Democracy in Latin America, Washington, DC, 1986, p. 5.

chapter seven political geography13
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.10 Map of the Roman Empire: Compare this map of the Roman Empire

to that of the Arab Empire in Figure 7.11

chapter seven political geography14
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.11 The Arab Empire

Source: The National Geographic Society, Peoples and Places of the Past, 1983, p. 137.

chapter seven political geography15
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.12 The Fertile Crescent: Some of the best farmland of the Fertile

Crescent is in a narrow strip of land between the Tigris and Euphrates—

today’s Iraq.

Source: The National Geographic Society, Peoples and Places of the Past, 1983, p. 26.

chapter seven political geography16
Chapter Seven Political Geography

Figure 7.13 Today’s Arab World

Source: Cassel & Co., Ltd., 1975

chapter eight nationalism and regionalism
Chapter Eight Nationalism and Regionalism

Figure 8.1 Europe’s Industrial Production Zones: The Two Regional Bananas

Source: John Newgouse, “Europe’s Rising Regionalism,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 1997, p. 70.

chapter eight nationalism and regionalism1
Chapter Eight Nationalism and Regionalism

Figure 8.2 Spain’s Autonomous Regions

Source: DeBlij and Muller, Realms, Regions, and Concepts, p. 90.

chapter nine global violence wars weapons and terrorism
Chapter Nine Global Violence: Wars, Weapons and Terrorism

Figure 9.1 Northern Spain and Southern France Highlighting the Basque Region

Source: The Economist, March 18, 2000, p. 52.

chapter ten global justice women poverty and human rights
Chapter Ten Global Justice: Women, Poverty and Human Rights

Figure 10.1 Urban Poor by Region

Source: UN Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), State of the World Cities Report 2001, p. 18.pdf.

chapter ten global justice women poverty and human rights1
Chapter Ten Global Justice: Women, Poverty and Human Rights

Figure 10.2 Incidence of Extreme Poverty: Under $1.00 a Day

Source: http://www.cgiar.org/tac/meetings /meet0100/maps.pdf

chapter ten global justice women poverty and human rights2
Chapter Ten Global Justice: Women, Poverty and Human Rights

Figure 10.3 Poorest Fifth’s Share of National Consumption

Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

http://www.oecd.org/dac/Indicators/htm/map3.htm.

chapter ten global justice women poverty and human rights3
Chapter Ten Global Justice: Women, Poverty and Human Rights

Figure 10.4 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary and Secondary Education (%)

Source: http://www.developmentgoals.org/Gender_Equality.htm

chapter ten global justice women poverty and human rights4
Chapter Ten Global Justice: Women, Poverty and Human Rights

Figure 10.5 Life Expectancy at Birth

Source: http://www.worldbank.org/depweb/english/modules/social/life/t-map.html (OECD)

chapter eleven international political economy i the advanced industrial countries
ChapterElevenInternational Political Economy I: The Advanced Industrial Countries

Figure 11.1 Balance of Trade: Impact on a Country’s Reserves

Source: Adapted from Joshua Goldstein, International Relations, Second Edition (New York: Addison Wesley Longman, 1997), p. 324.

chapter eleven international political economy i the advanced industrial countries1
ChapterElevenInternational Political Economy I: The Advanced Industrial Countries

Figure 11.2 Degrees of Economic Policy Coordination

chapter eleven international political economy i the advanced industrial countries2
ChapterElevenInternational Political Economy I: The Advanced Industrial Countries

Figure 11.3 Share of World Trade by Country

Source: Data from Eurostat.

chapter eleven international political economy i the advanced industrial countries3
ChapterElevenInternational Political Economy I: The Advanced Industrial Countries

Figure 11.4 The EU’s Main Trade Partners

Source: Data from Eurostat.

chapter eleven international political economy i the advanced industrial countries4
ChapterElevenInternational Political Economy I: The Advanced Industrial Countries

Figure 11.5 The Relationship between Environmental Degradation and Poverty

chapter twelve international political economy ii the politics of development
Chapter TwelveInternational Political Economy II:The Politics of Development

Figure 12.1 Poverty Headcount Index

Source: World Bank as reported in “Old Battle; New Strategy,” The Economist January 8, 2000.

chapter twelve international political economy ii the politics of development1
Chapter TwelveInternational Political Economy II:The Politics of Development

Figure 12.2 The Dependency Explanation for How the Rich Exploit the Poor

As the diagram suggests, multinational corporations from rich countries set up shop (invest) In Third world countries,

usually with assistance from wealthy Third World capitalists (the “core in the periphery”). Profits from the MNC operations

in the periphery are then sent back to the home country leaving the peripheral country not better (or even worse)

off than before the investment.

chapter twelve international political economy ii the politics of development2
Chapter TwelveInternational Political Economy II:The Politics of Development

Figure 12.3 Turbulent Africa

Source: From Foreign Policy, Spring 1999, volume 114, p. 15.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.1 Model of the GAIA Principle and Environmental Surprise

Source: Barbara Jancar-Webster, “Technology and Environment in Eastern Europe in James R. Scanlan (ed.)

Technology, Culture , and Development: The Experience of the Soviet Model.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem1
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.2 Leading Causes of Death, 2001

Source: The World Health Organization, world Health Report, 2002, Annex: Table 2 “Death by Cause, Sex, and Mortality Stratum in WHO Regions”.

http://www.who.int/whr/en/ or http://www.who.int/whr/2002/en/

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem2
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.3a Net Annual Migration Totals, 1995-2000

Source: Data derived from United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division,

International Migration Report 2002 (New York: United Nations Press, 2002) pp.11-15 and UN Wall Graph, “International Migration, 2002.”

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem3
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.3b Net Annual Migration Rates, 1995-2000

Source: Data derived from United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division,

International Migration Report 2002 (New York: United Nations Press, 2002) pp.11-15 and UN Wall Graph, “International Migration, 2002.”

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem4
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.4 Global Population Trends, 1950-2050

Source World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-1999, (http://www.wri.org/powenpoint/trends).

Data from United Nations Population Division, Long Range World Population Projections: Two Centuries of World Population

Growth 1950-2000, Table 6, p. 22.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem5
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.5 Stabilization Rate Data and Predictions, 1950-2050

Source World Resources Institute, World Resources 1998-1999, (http://www.wri.org/powenpoint/trends).

Data from United Nations Population Division, World Population Prospects 1950-2050 (1996 Revision).

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem6
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.6 Model of the Greenhouse Effect from IPCC Study

Source: J.T. Houghton, et as. (eds) Climate Change: the IPCC Scientific Assessment (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem7
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.7 World Commercial Energy Supply, 1998

Source: http://www.wri.org/powerpoints.oil.sld001.htm.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem8
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.8 Global Oil Consumption by Sector, 1998

Source: http://www.wri.org/powerpoints.oil.sld014.htm.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem9
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.9 Motor Vehicle Trends, 1946-1995

Source: (http://www.wri.org/powerpoints.oil.sld026.htm.) Data from American Automobile Manufacturers Association, World Motor Vehicle Data 1993

p. 23 and Motor Vehicle Pacts and Figures 1996, p.44.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem10
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.10 Regional Shares of Global Energy Consumption

Source: Compiled from world Energy Organization, World energy Outlook: 2002, figure 2.3: “Regional shares in World Primary Demand”

(http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/weo/pubs/weo2002/weo2002.asp).

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem11
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.11 Water Stress

Source: World Water Organization, Water Demand and Scarcity, p.5.pdf, at http://www.worldwater.org/waterData.htm.

chapter thirteen the global environment and the pollution problem12
Chapter ThirteenThe Global Environment and the Pollution Problem

Figure 13.12 World Water Use By Consumption Category and Region

Source: World Resources Institute, 1988-1999 world Resources (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 188.