slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 187 Views
  • Uploaded on

CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments. Marie L. Radford, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D. Senior Research Scientist, OCLC. ALISE Denver, CO

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments' - carys


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

CREATing a New Theoretical Model for Reference Encounters in Synchronous Face-to-Face and Virtual Environments

Marie L. Radford, Ph.D.

Associate Professor,

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Lynn Silipigni Connaway, Ph.D.

Senior Research Scientist,

OCLC

ALISE

Denver, CO

January 20-23, 2009

creating successful reference encounters
CREATing successful reference encounters
  • “In time, perhaps an overarching model of all reference, regardless of medium of delivery, will be developed.” (Pomerantz, 2005)
  • Present new model grounded in Communication & Sociology Theory
relational theory approach to interpersonal communication
Relational Theory & Approach to Interpersonal Communication
  • Every message has dual dimensions – both content and relational

(Watzlawick, Beavin, & Jackson, 1967)

dual dimensions
Relational

“HOW” message is to be taken

Relationship of participants

Dual Dimensions
  • Content
  • The “WHAT” of the message
  • Information exchange
interaction ritual essays on face to face behavior 1967
Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior (1967)

Essay:

“On Face-Work: An analysis of Ritual Elements in Social Interaction”

Erving Goffman

1922-1982

model grounded in research
Model Grounded in Research
  • Identify what is critically important to users & librarians in successful reference interactions
  • FtF Environment
    • Reference Encounter (Radford, 1999)
  • Virtual Reference, Live Chat Environment
    • Seeking Synchronicity (Radford & Connaway, 2005)
the reference encounter ftf
The Reference Encounter - FtF
  • Major Findings
    • “Interpersonal relationships & communication are of great importance in librarian & user perceptions of reference interactions.” (Radford, 1999)
    • Librarians value content more,

users value relational aspects

findings from interpersonal communication analysis
Findings from Interpersonal Communication Analysis
  • Relational & Content Facilitators
    • Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversationthat have a positive impact on the librarian-client interaction and that enhancecommunication.
  • Relational & Content Barriers
    • Interpersonal aspects of the chat conversation that have a negativeimpact on the librarian-client interaction and that impedecommunication.
the reference encounter ftf1
The Reference Encounter - FtF
  • Positive interpersonal aspects

(facilitators):

    • Good attitude
    • Relationship quality
    • Approachability
  • Negative interpersonal aspects

(barriers):

    • Poor attitude
    • Poor relationship quality
    • Lack of approachability
slide10
Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives
  • $1,103,572 project funded by: IMLS, Rutgers University & OCLC, Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
  • Project duration: 2.5 Years (10/05-3/08)
  • Four phases:
    • Focus group interviews
    • Analysis of 850 QuestionPoint live chat transcripts
    • Online survey
    • Telephone interviews
findings relational and content valued in vr
Findings: Relational AND Content Valued in VR
  • Librarians AND users value both information delivered & relational aspects
  • Greater portion of users value content in VRS than in FtF
  • Librarians are especially sensitive to user’s attitude in perceptions of unsuccessful VRS encounters (as found in FtF)
interpersonal skills important in vr
Interpersonal Skills Important in VR
  • Rapport building
  • Compensation for lack of nonverbal cues
  • Strategies for relationship development
  • Evidence of deference & respect
  • Face-saving tactics
  • Greeting & closing rituals
  • VR users
    • Show more deference
    • Exhibit barriers (rudeness, impatience) that differ greatly from librarian barriers (negative closure, limiting time, reprimands)
relational dimensions crucial to millennial users
Relational Dimensions Crucial to Millennial Users
  • Value information delivery
  • Want direct answers
  • Impatient & results oriented
  • Resist instruction in VR encounters, more receptive in FtF
  • More chat speak

& texting shortcuts

relational content dimensions positive
Relational Dimension

Facilitators

Positive Attitude

Positive Relationship Quality

Approachability

Positive Impact of Technology

Familiarity

Greeting Ritual

Closing Ritual

Content Dimension

Facilitators

Providing Information Access

Accurate Information

Specific Information

Demonstrating Knowledge (General/Specialized)

Appropriate Instruction

Convenient/Timely Access

Relational & Content Dimensions (Positive)
relational content dimensions negative
Content Dimension

Barriers

Lack of Information/Access

Lack of Accuracy

Negative Impact of Technology

Lack of Knowledge (General/Specialized)

Lack of Appropriate Instruction

Unrealistic Task

Relational Dimension

Barriers

Negative Attitude

Negative Relational Quality

Lack of Approachability

Negative Impact of Technology

Lack of Greeting Ritual

Lack of Closing Ritual

Relational & Content Dimensions (Negative)
content relational model of success in synchronous reference encounters ftf chat
Content/Relational Model Of Success In Synchronous Reference Encounters (FtF & Chat)

Encounter Successful

Encounter Partially Unsuccessful

Encounter Partially Unsuccessful

1

Content Dimension (Positive)

Relational Dimension (Positive)

  • Positive Attitude
  • Positive Relationship Quality
  • Approachability
  • Positive Impact of Technology
  • Familiarity
  • Greeting Ritual
  • Closing Ritual
  • Providing Information Access
  • Accurate Information
  • Specific Information
  • Demonstrating Knowledge
    • (General/Specialized)
  • Appropriate Instruction
  • Convenient/Timely Access

3

2

Content Dimension (Negative)

Relational Dimension (Negative)

  • Lack of Information/Access
  • Lack of Accuracy
  • Negative Impact of Technology
  • Lack of Knowledge
    • (General/Specialized)
  • Lack of Appropriate Instruction
  • Unrealistic Task
  • Negative Attitude
  • Negative Relational Quality
  • Lack of Approachability
  • Negative Impact of Technology
  • Lack of Greeting Ritual
  • Lack of Closing Ritual

4

Encounter Unsuccessful

slide17

Content/Relational Model Of Success In Synchronous Reference Encounters (FtF & Chat)

Encounter Successful

Encounter Partially Unsuccessful

Encounter Partially Unsuccessful

1

Content Dimension (Positive)

Relational Dimension (Positive)

  • Positive Attitude
  • Positive Relationship Quality
  • Approachability
  • Positive Impact of Technology
  • Familiarity
  • Greeting Ritual
  • Closing Ritual
  • Providing Information Access
  • Accurate Information
  • Specific Information
  • Demonstrating Knowledge
    • (General/Specialized)
  • Appropriate Instruction
  • Convenient/Timely Access

3

2

Content Dimension (Negative)

Relational Dimension (Negative)

  • Lack of Information/Access
  • Lack of Accuracy
  • Negative Impact of Technology
  • Lack of Knowledge
    • (General/Specialized)
  • Lack of Appropriate Instruction
  • Unrealistic Task
  • Negative Attitude
  • Negative Relational Quality
  • Lack of Approachability
  • Negative Impact of Technology
  • Lack of Greeting Ritual
  • Lack of Closing Ritual

4

Encounter Unsuccessful

quadrant 1 positive relational positive content successful
Quadrant 1 Positive Relational & Positive Content – Successful

Participants’ (librarian’s and user’s) information & interpersonal needs are met.

quadrant 2 positive relational negative content partially unsuccessful
Quadrant 2 Positive Relational & Negative Content – Partially Unsuccessful

Participants’ interpersonal needs are met, but information needs are not met.

quadrant 3 positive content negative relational partially unsuccessful
Quadrant 3 Positive Content & Negative Relational – Partially Unsuccessful

Participants’ information needs are met, but interpersonal needs are not met.

quadrant 4 negative content negative relational unsuccessful
Quadrant 4 - Negative Content & Negative Relational – Unsuccessful

Participants’ information & interpersonal needs are not met.

context situation critical
Context & Situation Critical

Participant (librarian, user) Characteristics

  • age & gender
  • cultural background
  • educational level
  • user’s past experience with libraries/librarians
  • technological skills (including keyboarding)
  • subject knowledge
  • language & communication skills
  • institutional affiliation
  • librarian’s reference service philosophy
situation
Situation
  • Reference queries are related to different situations including
    • professional
    • academic
    • personal
    • other
mode of communication
Mode of Communication
  • Synchronous reference modes
    • Face-to-face, traditional reference
    • VR (live chat) encounters
implications
Implications
  • Information & relationship development critical to successful reference interactions
  • Develop strategies for forming relationships with digital users
  • Sustainability of VRS dependant upon developing positive relationships with users
  • For LIS Education
    • Content & technical skills vitally important
    • Increase emphasis on interpersonal communication
    • Emphasize user’s point of view
future research
Future Research
  • More testing of Theoretical Model
    • Does it hold up in other modes?
    • Non-synchronous modes (email, text messaging)?
  • Next will investigate Instant Messaging (IM) reference environment – growing steadily
  • IM believed to be congruent with model, closely related to live chat
references
References

Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin, 5, 327-358.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual, essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, New York: Doubleday.

Pomerantz, J. (2005). A conceptual framework and open research questions for chat-based reference, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 56(12), 1288–1302.

Radford, M. L. (June, 2006). Encountering virtual users: A qualitative investigation of interpersonal communication in chat reference. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57(8), 1046-1059.

Radford, M. L. (1999). The reference encounter: Interpersonal communication in the academic library. Chicago: ACRL, A Division of the American Library Association.

Radford, M. L. & Connaway, L. S. (2005-2008). “Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives,” grant funded by the Institute for Museum and Library Services, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and OCLC, Inc. Available: http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/synchronicity/.

Watzlawick, P., Beavin, J. & Jackson, D.D. (1967). Pragmatics of human

communication. NY: Norton.

special thanks
Special Thanks
  • Rutgers University and OCLC Grant Project Team
  • Jocelyn DeAngelis Williams
  • Susanna Sabolsci-Boros
  • Patrick Confer
  • Timothy J. Dickey
  • David Dragos
  • Mary Anne Reilly
  • Julie Strange
  • Lisa Rose-Wiles
  • Andrea Simzak
  • Jannica Heinstrom
  • Janet Torsney
  • Vickie Kozo
end notes
End Notes
  • This is one of the outcomes from the project

Seeking Synchronicity: Evaluating Virtual Reference Services from User, Non-User, and Librarian Perspectives

  • Funded by IMLS, Rutgers University, & OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
  • Slides available at project web site:http://www.oclc.org/research/projects/synchronicity/