EQ • Why do parents decide to have children? • DE Health Standard 2- Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media on health behaviors.
Journal • Why do you think the teen pregnancy rate in the United States is so high? • What are your current plans and feelings about starting a family?
Deciding To Have Children • Parents who have carefully thought through their reasons for having children have the best chance of raising a healthy family.
Things to consider: • Parents love each other, are emotionally mature, and have a happy, stable marriage. • Parents understand that their lives will change a great deal. • Parents have completed their education and are financially able to support a child.
Planning a Family • Review budget • Child care • Maternity/Paternity leave? • Women should be in good physical condition. • Important to plan for prenatal care (medical care during pregnancy). • Stop using contraception (birth control). • If infertile is adoption or foster parenting options?
EQ (9-2) • What are the events that lead to the conception and birth of a child? • DE Health Standard 1- Students will understand essential health concepts in order to transfer knowledge into healthy actions for life.
Teenage Pregnancy • One in six teenagers who engage in sex become pregnant. • 1 million girls between the ages 15-19 become pregnant each year. • 400,000 pregnant teenagers are under the age of 15. • Pregnancy rate for girls under 14 has been increasing.
Teenage Pregnancy • Serious health problem. • Babies born to young mothers are often smaller and less healthy. • Teenage mothers are more likely to have health problems themselves during pregnancy (don’t eat well or get adequate medical care during pregnancy). • Other problems...
Conception and Pregnancy Fertilization (conception) union of an egg from the mother and a sperm from the father. • Millions of sperm may be deposited in the vagina, only a few hundred make it to the fallopian tubes. • Only one sperm can fertilize the egg.
Fertilization continued... • The united egg and sperm are called a zygote. • the zygote will travel through the fallopian tube, begin to divide.
Fertilization continued... • Within four to five days after fertilization, the growing structure reaches the uterus • By this time, it is made up of about 500 cells. • It has become a hollow sphere called a blastocyst.
Blastocyst • Blastocyst attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. Implantation- the process of attachment. • After implanted blastocyst is known as the embryo.
Fertilization continued Pregnancy Testing • Most common sign of pregnancy is a missed period. • Pregnancy can be determined as soon as implantation has occurred. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)- a hormone that is produced at the time of implantation. HCG can be found in the blood or urine.
The Embryo • Placenta- the organ that holds the embryo to the wall of the uterus. • Umbilical cord- the embryo’s life-line. • The developing embryo is enclosed in a bag of thin tissue called the amniotic sac.
The Embryo • The embryo floats within the sac in fluid called amniotic fluid. • By the end of the second month of pregnancy, the embryo is 1.2 inches long and has features such as eyes, ears, hands and feet. At this point until birth, it is called a fetus.
The Fetus • Hair grows and facial features develop. • Fetus begins to move and kick. • Nervous system develops.
Fetus continued…. • After 26 weeks, the fetus has a good chance of survival • By the end of the ninth month, the average fetus is 20 inches long and weighs 7.5 lbs.
EQ (9-3) • What is involved in each stage of birth? • DE Health Standard 1- Students will understand essential health concepts in order to transfer knowledge into healthy actions for life.
5-14-09 • BR- What is implantation? • Finish Lesson 2 • Lesson 2 Review p.207 1-5 • Look Who’s Talking
Trimesters • The nine months of pregnancy are divided into three periods, known as trimesters. • Each trimester is three months long. • The mother experiences many physical changes during each trimester.
First Trimester Morning Sickness • Morning sickness consists of attacks of nausea, and sometimes vomiting. • The cause is related to changes in levels of certain hormones. Usually disappears after a few weeks. Other changes • increase of breast size and breast tenderness • sleepiness
The Second Trimester • abdomen begins to swell, and she begins to feel the fetus moving. • the enlarged uterus pushes against the mother’s digestive tract and bladder. • Thin fluid may begin to leak from the nipples, this is the forerunner of breast milk.
The Third Trimester • Most women gain between 25-35 pounds during pregnancy. By third trimester the women is close to this weight. • Movement of the fetus can be seen and felt. • Indigestion and frequent urination continue.
Third Trimester continued... • During the last few weeks the mother may feel some irregular contractions. • From two weeks - few days before birth, the mother’s abdomen hardens and fetus head begins to move lower in the uterus.
Emotional Changes • Some expectant fathers experience sympathetic pregnancy, a condition in which they share some of the mother’s discomfort, such as morning sickness or frequent urination ( most likely to occur during the first trimester).
Prenatal Care • The chances of having a healthy baby greatly improve if the mother practices good health habits and has prenatal care. • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome mental retardation caused by alcohol
Prenatal Care continued • More than seventy inherited disorders can be detected with either one of two methods. 1. Amniocentesis- older method, involves the removal of a small amount of amniotic fluid from around the fetus (14-16 week).
2. Chorionic villus sampling- newer method, results can be available by the eighth week of pregnancy A small piece of chorion, a part of the placenta, is removed for examination.
Ultrasound- high frequency sound waves used to make a “picture” of the developing fetus. • Can detect abnormal bone, muscle, and heart formation. Also can confirm the position of the fetus in the uterus.
5-15-09 • BR: What happens in the 1st trimester of pregnancy? • Lesson 2 quiz • Lesson 3- Birth • Birth Activity
Birth • Birth begins when the wall of the uterus begins a series of contractions. • Labor- the work of pushing the fetus out. • Labor (birth) has three stages.
The Stages of Birth Stage One • Usually lasts from 4-24 hours. • Strong contractions cause the cervix to dilate, from 1 inch to 4 inches (2.5-10 centimeters).
Each contraction lasts 30-90 seconds. • The amniotic sac breaks and cervix softens to allow the fetus to pass through.
Stage Two • Lasts 1/2 hour to 2 hours and involves the actual birth, or delivery. • Contractions of the uterus continue, and the baby is pushed out. • Baby usually comes out head first.
Baby’s nose and mouth are suctioned out. • The umbilical cord is clamped and cut. • Special eye drops are put in to prevent infection • Injection of vitamin K is given to prevent excessive bleeding.
Baby is given an Apgar score, way to determine the baby’s need for emergency care. • A score of ten means the baby has come through the birth process in the best condition possible.