The History of Transportation. Values & Norms. TECHNOLOGY. i.e. Transportation. CULTURE. Coast Miwok Tribe. Coast Miwok Tribe. Coast Miwok Tribe. CULTURE. Walking. Contact with env . Canoes. Fishing. Horses. Carry bigger-heavier loads. ???. The arrival of the white man.
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Values & Norms TECHNOLOGY i.e. Transportation CULTURE
CULTURE • Walking • Contact with env. • Canoes • Fishing • Horses • Carry bigger-heavier loads • ??? • The arrival of the white man Transportation Values & Norms
Welcome of Francis Drake by Coast Miwok in 1579 Engraving by Theodor de Bry in 1599
CULTURE American Values: Freedom to expand and explore the ??? • Landscape • Scientific realm • Self Transportation Values & Norms
Agrarian Period Up to the mid – 1800s • 95% of population (mostly farmers) live in rural areas. • Cities are small: 4-5 miles end to end • People walk or ride horses • Cultural influences during this time: • Industrial Revolution • New scientific inventions • Exploring the “New World”
18th-19th century Inventions Revolver Printing press Dishwasher Refrigerator Soft drink Cement Safety pin Refrigerator Steam ship Machine gun Steam engine Vaccinations Submarine Fax Calculator Hot dogs Stapler Hot air balloon Bicycle Sewing machine Tin can Dynamite Tires Steam locomotive Matches Traffic lights Flush toilet Parachute Paper Plastic Rubber Ambulance Battery Camera
Industrial Period Late 1800s to mid 1900s Industrial revolution Massive migration to US Movement to cities close to manufacturing jobs Population growth Cities size grow Transportation needs change 50% pop. Lives in the city Horses Trolley cars Response to Congestion: Elevating streetcars (Chicago) and bellow street (NY) Trains In 20 years US railroad system grows from 2,818 mi. of track to more than 30,000 mi. Buses Intracity and continental lines Cars 1920: 3.5 million vehicles in US 1994: 195.5 million vehicles in US 469.5 million in the world 45,500 miles of interstate HWY authorized to be developed
Industrial Period in Marin A county emerges… • 1850 California became a state with Marin as one of the original counties. • 1880’s and 1890’s, steam-ships and ferries introduced. • 1896 a rail-line built to ascend Mt. Tam and extended to reach dairy farms in West Marin.
Industrial Period in Marin Arrival of the motor age… • October 1908, Ford Motor Company introduced the Model T automobile. • In 19 years of production, nearly 15.5 million were sold in the United States alone. • May 1937, the Golden Gate Bridge opened to vehicular traffic.
CULTURE • More train tracks American Values: Freedom, expand and explore : • More & bigger roads • More & bigger vehicles • Landscape • More people on the road • Scientific realm • Longer trips • Self Transportation Values & Norms
Service/Information Period Mid 1900s to the present Moving from the city to the suburbs. 1980: Typical family had 1 car 2007: Typicalfamilyhas2.5cars Europe 2007: 45% trips by walking, biking 10% Public Transportation USA 2007: 87% trips by car 3% Public transportation
1941 – initial 2 mile stretch of 4 lane highway built Today – 8 lane highway from Sausalito through Novato Currently – Carpool lanes run along entire stretch with gap between Corte Madera and San Rafael 1969 – State Legislature mandated development of public transportation system from SF through Marin Today – Golden Gate Bus and Ferry system runs 24 commute bus routes and 16 ferry feeder service routes plus ferry service from Larkspur and Sausalito to San Francisco Service/Information Periodin Marin The Development of Highway 101 and the Formation of Golden Gate Transit
CULTURE • More train tracks • Know new places • Better & faster communication • More & bigger roads • More independent • More & bigger vehicles • Traffic congestions, delays • More people on the road • Stress and health problems • Longer trips • Safety hazards • Sedentary culture Transportation Values & Norms
Congestion Delays, frustration, stress Obesity and health problems Safety hazards The Shadow Side of the Motor Age
Demand Demand CULTURE • Get to distant places • More train tracks • Better & faster communication • More & bigger roads • More independent • More & bigger vehicles • Traffic congestions, delays • More people on the road • Stress and health problems • Longer trips • Safety hazards • Sedentary culture Higher use of energy Transportation Values & Norms Supply Supply
CULTURE Higher use of energy • More train tracks • High use of fossil fuels • Pollution • More & bigger roads • Large emissions of Co2 • (Global Climate Change) • More & bigger vehicles • More people on the road • Bigger & toxic landfills • Longer trips • Use of more land Relationship with environment? Transportation Values & Norms
True Costs of Automobile Usage • Personal Costs • Social Costs • Governmental Costs • EnvironmentalCosts
The Birth of a Model Public Transit System Los Angeles Electric Rail System • Safe, clean, quiet, fast, frequent, on-time, and relatively cheap • 1,000 miles of track • 80 million passengers served in a single year
The Death of a Model Public Transit System • In 1939, a consortium of auto-related companies set up holding company in order to: • Buy up trolley lines • Dismantle tracks / Destroy trolleys • Replace with diesel-burning buses • Steer people away from public transit and into private cars
Bay Area Electric Rail Suffers Same Fate • 1903 – Key Electric Rail System commences in East Bay • 1924 – 800 Trains a day brought passengers to ferry boats • 1939 – Trains run across Bay Bridge • 1903 to 1941 – Northwestern Pacific Electric Trains serve Marin County • 1905 to 1941 – trains ran 180 miles from Oakland to Chico, the longest electric inter-urban run in the country
Robber Barons • Late 1800s it was the railroads that were considered the powerbrokers • Huge kickbacks and political influence • Government Land Grants • Labor intimidation and use of immigrant labor • Rise of Corporations • Economic collapse
Some International Comparisons • Europeans make 40 – 50% of all trips by walking or biking • US Americans make 87% of all trips by private car Percentage of commuters biking to work: Japan 15% Netherlands 50% China 77% USA 1.6%
Good Models • Bike Parking • Yellow (loaner) bike programs • Bicycle friendly streets for all sorts of biking
Measure A November 2004, Marin residents approved Measure A, a landmark sales tax measure dedicating funds for local transportation projects. Measure A provides for: Expanded bus service • Highway 101 HOV (carpool) lane completion • Roadway improvements • (for cars, bikes and pedestrians) • Safer routes to schools
Marin in the 21st century • May 2001 – County Bicycle Pedestrian Master Plan adopted • Ten cities have adopted Bicycle Plans or Bicycle/Pedestrian plans • $40 Million in grants have come to Marin since adoption of these plans
Marin Granted $25 Million As Model Bike and Pedestrian Community • 2005 – Marin was selected as one of 4 US communities to serve as a model Non-Motorized Transportation Program to demonstrate that investment in safe, integrated and complete bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure will result in reducing congestion and pollution, improving mobility and the environment and enhancing the health and livability of communities.
Marin County’s Bicycle and Pedestrian Master Plan • System of flat North-South and East-West separated bike paths • Details for safer routes to schools • Adequate bicycle parking • Educational programs • Swift street connections in and between Marin’s 11 towns
New values & norms? New modes Of Transportation?