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Structured Teaching: A Gradual Release of Responsibility Model of Instruction. Nancy Frey, Ph.D. San Diego State University nfrey@mail.sdsu.edu. PowerPoints available From www.fisherandfrey.com Click “Resources”. Early Predictors for Passing (or Failing) the CAHSEE. Grade Point Average

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structured teaching a gradual release of responsibility model of instruction

Structured Teaching: A Gradual Release of Responsibility Model of Instruction

Nancy Frey, Ph.D.

San Diego State University

nfrey@mail.sdsu.edu

PowerPoints available

From www.fisherandfrey.com

Click “Resources”

early predictors for passing or failing the cahsee
Early Predictors for Passing (or Failing) the CAHSEE
  • Grade Point Average
  • Absences
  • Classroom Behavior

These are present as early as fourth grade

Zau, A. C., & Betts, J. R. (2008). Predicting success, preventing failure: An investigation of the California High School Exit Exam. Sacramento, CA: Public Policy Institute of California.

slide4

It sounds so easy, so what gets in the way?

  • Hard Books
    • “Students must read books at their grade level”
  • Whole Class Texts
    • “Read chapter 4 and answer the questions”
  • Interventions for Struggling Readers
    • “I’m teaching fluency”
slide5

Myths about Project-Based Learning

Direct teaching is bad.

Only the “smart” kids benefit from PBL.

All the projects take weeks or months to finish.

slide6

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

Medium

0.8

0.1

High

0.9

Low

0.0

1.0

Teacher effects

1.1

-0.1

Developmental effects

Negative

1.2

-0.2

Zone of desired effects

Reverse effects

Retention: d = - 0.16

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.

New York: Routledge.

slide7

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

Medium

0.8

0.1

High

0.9

Low

0.0

1.0

Teacher effects

1.1

-0.1

Developmental effects

Negative

1.2

-0.2

Zone of desired effects

Reverse effects

Homework: d = .29

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.

New York: Routledge.

slide8

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

Medium

0.8

0.1

High

0.9

Low

0.0

1.0

Teacher effects

1.1

-0.1

Developmental effects

Negative

1.2

-0.2

Zone of desired effects

Reverse effects

Small group learning: d = 0.49

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.

New York: Routledge.

slide9

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

Medium

0.8

0.1

High

0.9

Low

0.0

1.0

Teacher effects

1.1

-0.1

Developmental effects

Negative

1.2

-0.2

Zone of desired effects

Reverse effects

Meta-cognitive Strategies: d = 0.69

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.

New York: Routledge.

slide10

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.2

Medium

0.8

0.1

High

0.9

Low

0.0

1.0

Teacher effects

1.1

-0.1

Developmental effects

Negative

1.2

-0.2

Zone of desired effects

Reverse effects

Reciprocal Teaching: d = 0.74

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement.

New York: Routledge.

slide11

7 Essentials for PBL

A need to know.

A driving question.

Student voice and choice.

21st century skills.

Inquiry and innovation.

Feedback and revision.

A publicly presented project.

Larmer & Mergendoller, 2010

slide13

Increase

instructional

consistency.

slide14

Teach for

interaction

with you and

the content.

slide16

Today’s Purposes

Internalize a gradual release of responsibility instructional framework.

Apply GRR to a PBL approach to learning.

Interact with colleagues about both.

slide17

Tomorrow’s Purposes

Discuss skills students need for 21st century PBL.

Identify quality indicators of effective instruction.

Use quality as a method for conducting instructional rounds.

Apply principles of feeding up, feeding back, and feeding forward to improve learning.

slide18

A little experiment…

http://www.polleverywhere.com/

let s make a foldable
Let’s Make a Foldable™

Envelope fold

  • Focus Lesson
  • Guided Instruction
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Independent Learning
slide21

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Model for Success for All Students

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

the sudden release of responsibility
The sudden release of responsibility

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

diy school
DIY School

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

(none)

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual

release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

the good enough classroom
The “Good Enough” Classroom

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual

release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

slide26

TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY

“I do it”

Focus Lesson

Guided Instruction

“We do it”

“You do it

together”

Collaborative

“You do it

alone”

Independent

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY

A Model for Success for All Students

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

table talk
Table Talk

What evidence do you see of learning in this classroom during modeling, guided instruction, collaborative learning, and independent learning?

reading math textbooks
Goal: arrive at “truth”

Importance of “close reading” an intensive consideration of every word in the text

Rereading a major strategy

Heavy emphasis on error detection

Precision of understanding essential

Conclusions subject to public argument

Reading Math Textbooks

Cindy Shanahan, 2008

thinking aloud in math
Thinking Aloud in Math

Background knowledge (e.g., When I see a triangle, I remember that the angles have to add to 180°.)

Relevant versus irrelevant information (e.g., I’ve read this problem twice and I know that there is information included that I don’t need.)

Selecting a function (e.g., The problem says ‘increased by’ so I know that I’ll have to add.)

Setting up the problem (e.g., The first thing that I will do is … because …)

Estimating answers (e.g., I predict that the product will be about 150 because I see that there are 10 times the number.)

Determining reasonableness of an answer (e.g., I’m not done yet as I have to check to see if my answer is makes sense.)

Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Anderson, H. (2010). Thinking and comprehending in the mathematics classroom (pp. 146-159). In K. Ganske

& D. Fisher (Eds.), Comprehension across the curriculum: Perspectives and practices, K-12. New York: Guilford.

slide33

Livescribe Pulse Smartpen

Teacher thinks aloud doing a

math problem, then uploads

notes to classroom wiki

table talk1
Table Talk
  • In what ways does Dina connect mathematical
  • thinking to thinking aloud?
  • How does she establish an environment
  • where learners explain their thinking?
slide35

Guiding

Instruction

slide36

Robust

Questions

Let’s make a

Foldable

Prompts

Cues

Guided Instruction

Direct

Explanation

slide37

Robust questions

Prompts

Cues

Direct explanation and modeling

slide38
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal?

Student: An animal that stays awake at night.

Teacher: Good. What is a diurnal animal?

I-R-E

slide39
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal?

Student: An animal that stays awake at night.

Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics?

Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot.

Probe

slide40
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal?

Student: An animal that stays awake at night.

Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics?

Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot.

Misconception

slide41
Teacher: What is a nocturnal animal?

Student: An animal that stays awake at night.

Teacher: Tell me more about that. Does a nocturnal animal have special characteristics?

Student: Well, it doesn’t sleep a lot.

Teacher: I’m thinking of those pictures we saw of the great horned owl and the slow loris in the daytime and at night. Does your answer still work?

PROMPT

slide42

Background

knowledge

prompts

invite students to

use what they know

to resolve problems

slide43

Process or

Procedure

Prompts

To perform a

specific task

slide44
Cues

Shift attention to sources of information

More directandspecificthan prompts

slide45
the expert commentator sees things you don’t

cues do the same for novices

Attention grows with competence

direct explanation
Direct Explanation

Identify

Explain

Think aloud

Monitor

Take care not to re-assume responsibility too quickly

table talk2
Table Talk
  • How does Rita encourage oral language while building vocabulary?
  • How are students using their language knowledge to develop new vocabulary learning?
responding when students don t get it
Responding When Students Don’t Get It
  • Read the article and take notes in the top left quadrant of the Conversation Roundtable.
  • What quote from the article resonates with you?
  • Take notes throughout the discussion on what your group members have to say.
  • Summarize in the rhombus in the center.
purposes of productive group work
Purposes of Productive Group Work

Students work together to solve problems, discover information, and complete projects

Students use the “language of the lesson”

slide53

It is not:

  • Ability grouping
  • For introducing new information or new skills
slide54
Students are consolidating their understanding
  • Negotiating understanding with peers
  • Engaging in inquiry
  • Apply knowledge to novel situations

These are key to successful PBL

slide55

But it’s more than merely

being “engaged”…

slide57

… they’re

interacting.

sample instructional routines
Reading

Literature Circles

Collaborative Strategic Reading

Reciprocal Teaching

Partner reading

Jigsaw

Sample Instructional Routines
sample instructional routines1
Writing

Progressive Writing

Paired Writing

Peer response

GIST writing

Collaborative poster

Sample Instructional Routines
slide60

Rural Voices Project

Students podcast

about their hometowns

Sponsored by the National Writing Project

sample instructional routines2
Oral Language

Think-Pair-Square

Numbered Heads Together

Socratic Seminar

Walking Review

Novel Ideas Only

Sample Instructional Routines
table talk3
Table Talk

What are your favorite ways to encourage collaboration between students? What are the benefits and challenges?

slide66

Enough background knowledge

to have something to say.

slide67

Language support to

knowhow to say it.

slide70

Expectations of and

accountability

for the interaction.

slide71

An established

community of

learners that

encourage

and

support

each other.

slide72

Understanding

of the task.

slide73

Knowledge of

the norms

of interaction.

slide74

Independent Learning: Not Just

“Do It Yourself” School

slide75
26%

Number of high school teachers who “often or very often” run out of time in class and assign the content

for homework

(MetLife, 2008)

slide76

Traditional homework occurs

too soon

in the instructional cycle.

goals of homework
Goals of Homework
  • Fluency building
  • Application
  • Spiral review
  • Extension

Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Homework and the gradual release of responsibility: Making responsibility

possible. English Journal,98(2), 40-45.

slide80

Consistency

Interaction

Metacognition