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Introduction to Spintronics. Josh Schaefferkoetter February 27, 2007. Introduction. Conventional electronic devices ignore the spin property and rely strictly on the transport of the electrical charge of electrons

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introduction to spintronics

Introduction to Spintronics

Josh Schaefferkoetter

February 27, 2007

introduction
Introduction
  • Conventional electronic devices ignore the spin property and rely strictly on the transport of the electrical charge of electrons
  • Adding the spin degree of freedom provides new effects, new capabilities and new functionalities
future demands
Future Demands
  • Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors on a silicon chip will roughly double every eighteen months
  • By 2008, it is projected that the width of the electrodes in a microprocessor will be 45nm across
  • As electronic devices become smaller, quantum properties of the wavelike nature of electrons are no longer negligible
  • Spintronic devices offer the possibility of enhanced functionality, higher speed, and reduced power consumption
advantages of spin
Advantages of Spin
  • Information is stored into spin as one of two possible orientations
  • Spin lifetime is relatively long, on the order of nanoseconds
  • Spin currents can be manipulated
  • Spin devices may combine logic and storage functionality eliminating the need for separate components
  • Magnetic storage is nonvolatile
  • Binary spin polarization offers the possibility of applications as qubits in quantum computers
slide5
GMR
  • 1988 France, GMR discovery is accepted as birth of spintronics
  • A Giant MagnetoResistive device is made of at least two ferromagnetic layers separated by a spacer layer
  • When the magnetization of the two outside layers is aligned, lowest resistance
  • Conversely when magnetization vectors are antiparallel, high R
  • Small fields can produce big effects
  • parallel and perpendicular current
parallel current gmr
Parallel Current GMR
  • Current runs parallel between the ferromagnetic layers
  • Most commonly used in magnetic read heads
  • Has shown 200% resistance difference between zero point and antiparallel states
spin valve
Spin Valve
  • Simplest and most successful spintronic device
  • Used in HDD to read information in the form of small magnetic fields above the disk surface
perpendicular current gmr
Perpendicular Current GMR
  • Easier to understand theoretically, think of one FM layer as spin polarizer and other as detector
  • Has shown 70% resistance difference between zero point and antiparallel states
  • Basis for Tunneling MagnetoResistance
tunnel magnetoresistance
Tunnel Magnetoresistance
  • Tunnel Magnetoresistive effect combines the two spin channels in the ferromagnetic materials and the quantum tunnel effect
  • TMR junctions have resistance ratio of about 70%
  • MgO barrier junctions have produced 230% MR
slide10
MRAM
  • MRAM uses magnetic storage elements instead of electric used in conventional RAM
  • Tunnel junctions are used to read the information stored in Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory, typically a”0” for zero point magnetization state and “1” for antiparallel state
slide11
MRAM
  • Attempts were made to control bit writing by using relatively large currents to produce fields
  • This proves unpractical at nanoscale level
spin transfer
Spin Transfer
  • Current passed through a magnetic field becomes spin polarized
  • This flipping of magnetic spins applies a relatively large torque to the magnetization within the external magnet
  • This torque will pump energy to the magnet causing its magnetic moment to precess
  • If damping force is too small, the current spin momentum will transfer to the nanomagnet, causing the magnetization will flip
  • Unwanted effect in spin valves
  • Possible applications in memory writing
slide13
MRAM
  • The spin transfer mechanism can be used to write to the magnetic memory cells
  • Currents are about the same as read currents, requiring much less energy
slide14
MRAM
  • MRAM promises:
    • Density of DRAM
    • Speed of SRAM
    • Non-volatility like flash
spin transistor
Spin Transistor
  • Ideal use of MRAM would utilize control of the spin channels of the current
  • Spin transistors would allow control of the spin current in the same manner that conventional transistors can switch charge currents
  • Using arrays of these spin transistors, MRAM will combine storage, detection, logic and communication capabilities on a single chip
  • This will remove the distinction between working memory and storage, combining functionality of many devices into one
datta das spin transistor
Datta Das Spin Transistor
  • The Datta Das Spin Transistor was first spin device proposed for metal-oxide geometry, 1989
  • Emitter and collector are ferromagnetic with parallel magnetizations
  • The gate provides magnetic field
  • Current is modulated by the degree of precession in electron spin
magnetic semiconductors
Magnetic Semiconductors
  • Materials like magnetite are magnetic semiconductors
  • Development of materials similar to conventional
  • Research aimed at dilute magnetic semiconductors
    • Manganese is commonly doped onto substrate
    • However previous manganese-doped GaAs has transition temp at -88oC
  • Curie temperatures above room must be produced
magnetic semiconductors18
Magnetic Semiconductors
  • F. Matsukura, H. Ohno, A. Shen, and Y. Sugawara, “Transport Properties and Origin of Ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As,” Phys. Rev. B57, R2037 (1998).
  • A. M. Nazmul, T. Amemiya, Y. Shuto, S. Sugahara, and M. Tanaka, “High Temperature Ferromagnetism in GaAs-Based Heterostructures with Mn Delta Doping”; see http://arxiv.org/cond-mat/0503444 (2005).
  • F. Matsukura, E. Abe, and H. Ohno, “Magnetotransport Properties of (Ga, Mn)Sb,” J. Appl. Phys.87, 6442 (2000).
  • X. Chen, M. Na, M. Cheon, S. Wang, H. Luo, B. D. McCombe, X. Liu, Y. Sasaki, T. Wojtowicz, J. K. Furdyna, S. J. Potashnik, and P. Schiffer, “Above-Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in GaSb/Mn Digital Alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 511 (2002).
  • Y. D. Park, A. T. Hanbicki, S. C. Erwin, C. S. Hellberg, J. M. Sullivan, J. E. Mattson, T. F. Ambrose, A. Wilson, G. Spanos, and B. T. Jonker, “A Group-IV Ferromagnetic Semiconductor: MnxGe1−x,” Science295, 651 (2002).
  • Y. Matsumoto, M. Murakami, T. Shono, T. Hasegawa, T. Fukumura, M. Kawasaki, P. Ahmet, T. Chikyow, S. Koshihara, and H. Koinuma, “Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Transport Transition Metal-Doped Titanium Dioxide,” Science291, 854 (2001).
  • M. L. Reed, N. A. El-Masry, H. H. Stadelmaier, M. E. Ritums, N. J. Reed, C. A. Parker, J. C. Roberts, and S. M. Bedair, “Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Properties of (Ga, Mn)N,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 3473 (2001).
  • S. Cho, S. Choi, G.-B. Cha, S. Hong, Y. Kim, Y.-J. Zhao, A. J. Freeman, J. B. Ketterson, B. Kim, Y. Kim, and B.-C. Choi, “Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in (Zn1−xMnx)GeP2 Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 257203 (2002).
  • S. B. Ogale, R. J. Choudhary, J. P. Buban, S. E. Lofland, S. R. Shinde, S. N. Kale, V. N. Kulkarni, J. Higgins, C. Lanci, J. R. Simpson, N. D. Browning, S. Das Sarma, H. D. Drew, R. L. Greene, and T. Venkatesan, “High Temperature Ferromagnetism with a Giant Magnetic Moment in Transparent Co-Doped SnO2−δ,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 077205 (2003).
  • Y. G. Zhao, S. R. Shinde, S. B. Ogale, J. Higgins, R. Choudhary, V. N. Kulkarni, R. L. Greene, T. Venkatesan, S. E. Lofland, C. Lanci, J. P. Buban, N. D. Browning, S. Das Sarma, and A. J. Millis, “Co-Doped La0.5Sr0.5TiO3−δ: Diluted Magnetic Oxide System with High Curie Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83, 2199–2201 (2003).
  • H. Saito, V. Zayets, S. Yamagata, and K. Ando, “Room-Temperature Ferromagnetism in a II–VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor Zn1−xCrxTe,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 207202 (2003).
  • P. Sharma, A. Gupta, K. V. Rao, F. J. Owens, R. Sharma, R. Ahuja, J. M. Osorio Guillen, B. Johansson, and G. A. Gehring, “Ferromagnetism Above Room Temperature in Bulk and Transparent Thin Films of Mn-Doped ZnO,” Nature Mater.2, 673 (2003).
  • J. Philip, N. Theodoropoulou, G. Berera, J. S. Moodera, and B. Satpati, “High-Temperature Ferromagnetism in Manganese-Doped Indium–Tin Oxide Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 777 (2004).
  • H. X. Liu, S. Y. Wu, R. K. Singh, L. Gu, D. J. Smith, N. R. Dilley, L. Montes, M. B. Simmonds, and N. Newman, “Observation of Ferromagnetism at over 900 K in Cr-doped GaN and AlN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85, 4076 (2004).
  • S. Y. Wu, H. X. Liu, L. Gu, R. K. Singh, M. van Schilfgaarde, D. J. Smith, N. R. Dilley, L. Montes, M. B. Simmonds, and N. Newman, “Synthesis and Characterization of High Quality Ferromagnetic Cr-Doped GaN and AlN Thin Films with Curie Temperatures Above 900 K” (2003 Fall Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings), Mater. Sci. Forum798, B10.57.1 (2004).

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current research
Current Research
  • Weitering et al. have made numerous advances
    • Ferromagnetic transition temperature in excess of 100 K in (Ga,Mn)As diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS's).
    • Spin injection from ferromagnetic to non-magnetic semiconductors and long spin-coherence times in semiconductors.
    • Ferromagnetism in Mn doped group IV semiconductors.
    • Room temperature ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)N, (Ga,Mn)P, and digital-doped (Ga,Mn)Sb.
    • Large magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic semiconductor tunnel junctions.
current research20
Current Research
  • Material science
    • Many methods of magnetic doping
  • Spin transport in semiconductors
conclusion
Conclusion

Interest in spintronics arises, in part, from the looming problem of exhausting the fundamental physical limits of conventional electronics.

However, complete reconstruction of industry is unlikely and spintronics is a “variation” of current technology

The spin of the electron has attracted renewed interest because it promises a wide variety of new devices that combine logic, storage and sensor applications.

Moreover, these "spintronic" devices might lead to quantum computers and quantum communication based on electronic solid-state devices, thus changing the perspective of information technology in the 21st century.