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ISLAM IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW. Dr. Doris Jakobsh. Adherents.com WORLD-WIDE MUSLIM POPULATIONS 900 MILLION. ISLAM:. Meaning = Submission/Surrender To ‘Allah’ (‘the God’) ‘God alone is great’. CONTEXT:. 3 great ‘super-powers’: Byzantine Empire - Christian Ethiopian Empire – Christian

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Islam in india an overview l.jpg

ISLAM IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW

Dr. Doris Jakobsh


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Adherents.comWORLD-WIDE MUSLIM POPULATIONS900 MILLION


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ISLAM:

  • Meaning = Submission/Surrender

  • To ‘Allah’ (‘the God’)

  • ‘God alone is great’


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CONTEXT:

3 great ‘super-powers’:

  • Byzantine Empire - Christian

  • Ethiopian Empire – Christian

  • Persian Empire – Zoroastrian, with Jewish and Christian minorities

  • Arabia of Muhammad - polytheistic


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HANIFS

  • Already a movement towards monotheism, due to the belief that worldview of the ‘super-powers’ was more progressive than that of polytheism

  • Movement that affirmed monotheism, but distinct from Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastsrianism


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MUHAMMAD:

  • 570-632 CE

  • Born in Mecca


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MUHAMMAD

  • Merchant family

  • Part of Quraysh tribe (custodians of sacred places of Mecca)

  • 25 years old – entered service of Khadija, a wealthy widow much older than Muhammad

  • Fatima – their daughter



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MUHAMMAD AND GABRIEL

  • 611 CE

  • Solitary meditations in caves

  • Archangel Gabriel


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HIJRA

  • 611-621 Muhammad preaches to fellow Meccans about the oneness of God

  • 622 – accepts an invitation to Yathrib (Medina)

  • This journey is called HIJRA

  • This is the date from which the Muslim calendar starts




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MUHAMMAD’S DEATH MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

In 632, he was suddenly taken ill. on June 8, with his third wife Aishah beside him, the Messenger of God "died with the heat of noon."


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ISLAM’S EXPANSION, 25 YEARS MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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MECCA TODAY MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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5 PILLARS OF ISLAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • SHAHADA - WITNESS

  • SALAAT - PRAYER 5 TIMES DAILY

  • ZAKAT - ALMSGIVING

  • SAWM OR SIYAM, FASTING, RAMADAN

  • HAJJ- PILGRIMAGE


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1) SHAHADA: CORNERSTONE OF ISLAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

“There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his messenger (Quran, 48:29).’’


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SHAHADA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • In Arabic, the first part is la ilaha illa'Allah - 'there is no god except God'; ilaha (god) can refer to anything which we may be tempted to put in place of God--wealth, power, and the like. Then comes illa'Allah: 'except God', the source of all Creation. The second part of the Shahada is Muhammadun rasulu'Llah: 'Muhammad is the messenger of God.' A message of guidance has come through a man like ourselves. It is taken directly from the Qur'an:


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QUR’AN 3:18, BEARING WITNESS MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • "God bears witness that there is no god but God and so do the angels and those possessed of knowledge. In justice, there is no god but Him, He is the exalted, the wise."


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2) SALAAT: PRAYER MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • dawn

  • noon

  • mid-afternoon

  • sunset

  • nightfall

  • Prayers determine the rhythm of the entire day

  • Prayers can be performed anywhere, but preferably in a mosque


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SALAAT, POSTURES MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • The Salaat consists of standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting positions.

  • Before, during and after each of these positions, Muslims recite verses from the Holy Qur'an and glorify Allah as directed by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) who was taught the details by Archangel Jibril (Gabriel, pbuh).


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  • Muslims performing MUHAMMAD’S CONTROLSalaat facing toward Ka'bah. RIGHT: Pilgrims in prostration.


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CALL TO PRAYER: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “God is most Great. God is most Great.God is most Great. God is most Great.I testify that there is no God except Allah.I testify that there is no God except Allah.I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.Come to prayer! Come to prayer!Come to success (in this life and the Here after)! Come to success!Allah is most great. Allah is most great.There is no God except Allah.”

  • (heard in Muslim mosques)


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MUSLIMS, CALCUTTA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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3) ZAKAT: ALMSGIVING MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • all things belong to God

  • wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust.

  • Zakat literally means grow (in goodness) or 'increase', 'purifying' or 'making pure'.

  • So the act of giving zakat means purifying one's wealth to gain Allah's blessing to make it grow in goodness.


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ZAKAT: ‘RELIGIOUS PAYMENT’ MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Zakat is a religious ‘payment’ made by Muslims from their wealth or income, or business, or crops,

  • In the form of money or crops or animals – usually 2.5%

  • Often Zakat committee set up, or, in Islamic countries, government


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ZAKAT: QUR’AN 9:103 MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • "Take from their wealth a portion for charity, in order to clean them thereby, and sanctify them."


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4) SAWM OR SIYAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Fasting

  • Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from first light until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations.


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SAWM OR SIYAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are pregnant or nursing are NOT required to complete the entire fast

  • They can break the fast and make up an equal number of days later in the year

  • They can also feed a needy person for every day missed.


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RAMADAN MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar

  • The Month of Ramadan is also when it is believed the Holy Qur’an was sent down from heaven to guide humankind and offer the way of Salvation


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RAMADAN MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Ramadan is a time when Muslims concentrate on their faith and spend less time on the concerns of their everyday lives. It is a time of worship and contemplation


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QUR’AN MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • One may eat and drink at any time during the night "until you can plainly distinguish a white thread from a black thread by the daylight: then keep the fast until night."


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ID/EID-AL-FITR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Begins with the sighting of the new moon:

  • Fasting is forbidden on this day, as it marks the end of the month long fast of Ramadan


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EID: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • One is encouraged to rise early and eat a light snack

  • Then bathe, as always, but with the remembrance that this is a special day.

  • Muslims are encouraged to dress in their best clothes, new if possible.


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MUHAMMAD’S CONTROLEID MUBARAK’

EID GREETING CARDS


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5) HAJJ: PILGRIMAGE MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • a once-in-a-lifetime obligation upon male and female ADULTS whose health and means permit it

  • about two million people go to Makkah each year from every corner of the globe


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HAJJ: PREPARATIONS MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Before setting out, a pilgrim should redress all wrongs, pay all debts, plan to have enough funds for his/her own journey and for the maintenance of the family while he/she is away, and prepare him/herself for good conduct throughout the Hajj.


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HAJJ: LUNAR CALENDAR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Although Makkah is always filled with visitors, the annual Hajj begins in the twelfth month of the Islamic year

  • so Hajj and Ramadan are at times celebrated in the fall or winter


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QUR’AN, 22:26-30 MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

Behold! We gave the site to Abraham of the (Sacred) House (saying): "Associate not any thing (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round or stand up or bow or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer)."And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways;"That they may witness the benefits (provided) for them and celebrate the name of Allah through the Days appointed over the cattle which He has provided for them (for sacrifice): then eat ye thereof and feed the distressed ones in want."Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them perform their vows and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House."Such (is the Pilgrimage): whoever honors the sacred rites of Allah for him it is good in the sight of his Lord. Lawful to you (for food in pilgrimage) are cattle except those mentioned to you (as exceptions): but shun the abomination of idols and shun the word that is false.


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MINA: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • On the first day of the Hajj, pilgrims sweep out of Mecca towards Mina, a small uninhabited village east of the city.

  • Pilgrims generally spend their time meditating and praying, as the Prophet did on his pilgrimage.


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HAJJ: CLOTHING MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Pilgrims wear simple but special white clothes: simple because no distinctions of class and culture are to be shown

  • ‘Ihram', a garment made of two seamless white sheets or towels symbolising purity and equalitythat must be worn by men

  • all are equal before God


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HAJJ: RITES MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Ablutions (as before prayer times)

  • Abstention from any killing, sexual activity, cutting hair or nails


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TOUCH KA’ABA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • The Ka'aba is a stone building located near the center of the quadrangle of the Grand Mosque in the Holy City of Makkah. Set in a silver surround in the east corner of the Ka'aba, some four feet above ground level, is the Black Stone. This sacred Stone, the focal point of the Hajj, is the only remnant of the shrine which Abraham built when it was given to Abraham by the angel Gabriel.

  • Kiss or touch KA’ABA

  • Circumambulate 7 times (Tawaaf)


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KA’ABA, DRAWING MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

Each year an Arab nation provides the beautiful drapes which cover the Kab’ah for the Hajj.


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REFLECTIONS AT KA’ABA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “To touch and kiss the stone is to travel back in time and follow in the footsteps of all those pious and noble greats in history who have touched it. It is not easy to do that, though. It seems there are always too many people ahead who are trying to do the same. The closest we came to it was about ten feet and there we raised our hands in salutation and to say that 'God is great.”

Reflections of a devotee at the Haj,

http://users.erols.com/ameen/hajjexp.htm

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HAJJ: KA’ABA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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KA’ABA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Islam's holiest place was not built by its last Prophet Muhammad

  • tradition has it that the Ka'bah was originally built by Prophet Adam and was rebuilt by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his eldest son Prophet Isma'il (Ishmael), nearly four thousand five hundred years ago.


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TALBIAH (prayer during MUHAMMAD’S CONTROLTawaaf circumambulation)

Here I am O Allah, at Thy Command. Here I am, at Thy Command.There is no partner unto Thee. Here I am, at Thy Command.Verily Thine is the praise, the blessings and the sovereignty of the universe.There is no partner unto Thee.


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ZAMZAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Zamzam – well

  • Where the water sprang up under Ismael’s feet

  • Now enclosed in a marble chamber in the Ka'bah


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REFLECTIONS, ZAMZAM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “As we drink from Zamzam, we know it is the same well that sprang up in the middle of the desert so Hagar and Ishmael could drink from it.”

http://users.erols.com/ameen/hajjexp.htm


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SA’Y MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL: ‘RUNNING’

  • Run 7 times up and down a colonnade between 2 hills (450 yards apart) – SA’Y - ‘Hagar searching for water for Ishmael’

  • Hagar, is said to have run back and forth seven times between two rocky hillocks, al-Safa and al-Marwah and then found the sacred water known as Zamzam


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Reflections at Hajj MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “As we walk and run between Safa and Marwah, the two hillocks in the northeast of Ka'bah, we know these are the same hills where Hajerah (Hagar) ran to search for water for infant Ishmael.”

Reflections of a devotee at the Hajj

http://users.erols.com/ameen/hajjexp.htm


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RETURN TO MINA: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Before daybreak on the third day, pilgrims move back to Mina. There they throw white pebbles that have been collected earlier.

  • According to some traditions, this practice is associated with Prophet Ibrahim.

  • As pilgrims throw seven pebbles at each of these pillars, they remember the story of Satan's attempt to persuade Ibrahim to disregard God's command to sacrifice his son.


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REFLECTIONS AT MINA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “As we gather pebbles at Muzdalfah to throw at the pillars designated as the place where Satan tempted Prophet Abraham, we realize that some of the very pebbles may have been touched by the Prophet and his companions. At this place, we are in the grip of history. We can see it, hear it, feel it, touch it and drink from it. It is in Mina where Satan tempted Prophet Abraham and he threw pebbles at Satan to keep him at bay. In the memory of that incident, we also throw pebbles at the symbolic Satan reminding ourselves the satan within us exploiting our weaknesses and tempting us with riches, pleasures, and non-productive activities. ”

http://users.erols.com/ameen/hajjexp.htm


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FESTIVAL OF SACRIFICE MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Following the casting of the pebbles, most pilgrims sacrifice a goat, sheep or some other animal. They give the meat to the poor after, in some cases, keeping a small portion for themselves.


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CAMELS, FOR FESTIVAL OF SACRIFICE MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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END OF HAJJ: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Men either shave their heads or clip their hair, and women cut off a symbolic lock, to mark their partial deconsecration. This is done as a symbol of humility. All proscriptions, save the one of conjugal relations, are now lifted.


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REFLECTION: END OF HAJJ MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • “The most difficult time comes when leaving the House of Allah. One is never completely satisfied with the time spent here. There is always a desire for visiting it again and to enjoy the peace and tranquility of this holy place of the Prophets. We make the farewell Tawaaf and pray that we come back here soon.”

http://users.erols.com/ameen/hajjexp.htm


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HAJJ, REFLECTION MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

"It would require a master pen to describe the scene, poignant in its intensity, of that great concourse of humanity of which I was one small unit, completely lost to their surroundings in a fervor of religious enthusiasm. Many of the pilgrims had tears streaming down their cheeks; others raised their faces to the starlit sky that had witnessed this drama so often in the past centuries. The shining eyes, the passionate appeals, the pitiful hands outstretched in prayer moved me in a way that nothing had ever done before, and I felt caught up in a strong wave of spiritual exaltation. I was one with the rest of the pilgrims in a sublime act of complete surrender to the Supreme Will which is Islam."

Lady Evelyn Cobbold, 1934

http://www.islam.org/Mosque/jlthajj/hajj.htm


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ISLAM IN INDIA MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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FIRST MUSLIMS: 711 MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Caliphate of Damscus


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MAHMUD OF GHAZNI MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Afghanistan

  • 1001 – 1026 CE

  • 17 invasions

  • ‘The Idol Breaker’

GHAZNI VICTORY TOWER, GHAZNI, AFGHANISTAN


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ANANDPAL, RAJA OF PUNJAB MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1008 CE

  • Peshawar

  • Runaway

    Elephant


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TIMUR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

Tamerlane

1398, India

"I am the scourge of God appointed to chastise you, since no one knows the remedy for your iniquity except me. You are wicked, but I am more wicked than you, so be silent!"


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BABUR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

1526-1530


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PURANA QILA, DELHI MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

Babur's Purana Qila, Delhi


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HUMANYUN MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1530-1556


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AKBAR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1556-1605

  • Son of Humayun

  • Greatest of Mughal

    line



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JAHANGIR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1605-1627

  • Muslim emperor in power when first Europeans came to India

  • Built Sikandra, Akbar’s tomb


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SHAHJAHAN MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1627-1658

  • Shahjahan

  • Mumtaz


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TAJ MAHAL MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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AURANGZEB MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1658 to 1707


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BRIDGES: ISLAM AND HINDUISM MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • Kabir

  • Nanak

  • Akbar


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KABIR, THE WEAVER MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL


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KABIR MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

“Are you looking for me? I am in the next seat.

My shoulder is against yours.

You will not find me in stupas, not in shrine rooms, nor in temples:

Not in masses, nor kirtan, not in eating nothing but vegetables.

When you really look for me, you will see me instantly:

You will find me in the tiniest house of time.

Kabir says: Student, tell me, what is God?

He is the breath inside the breath.”


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KABIR: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

“Swan, tell me your story.

What country have you come from, swan, what shores are you flying to?

Where do you rest at night, and what are you looking for?

It’s dawn, swan, wake up, soar to the air, follow me!

There is a land not governed by sadness and doubt, where the fear of death is unknown.

Spring forests bloom there and the wind is sweet with the flower ‘He-Is-Myself’.

The bee if the heart dives into it and wants no other joy.”


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KABIR: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

  • 1440 – 1518 CE

  • Weaver caste in Varanasi

  • (At an earlier time weaver caste of Varanasi had converted to Islam)

  • Advantageous to do so

  • Kabir raised as Muslim


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KABIR’S CRITIQUE OF ISLAM: MUHAMMAD’S CONTROL

“I’m asking you, Mr. Muslim

With your red and yellow

Rags and robes.

Now you, Mr. Qazi [religious administrator]

What kind of work is that,

Going from house to house

Chopping heads?

Who gave you the order for chickens and goats?

Who told you to swing the knife?

Aren’t you afraid to be called a sage

As you read your verses

And dupe the world?

Kabir says, this high class Muslim

Wants to force this way on the world.

Fast all day

Kill cows at night,

Here prayers, there blood –

Does this please God?”


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- KABIR URGED PEOPLE OF ALL FAITHS TO FIND SALVATION IN TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

- THIS ALONE IS THE TRUE PATH


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KABIR: TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

“O servant, where does thou seek me?

Lo! I am beside thee.

I am neither in temple nor in mosque.

I am neither in Kaaba nor in Kailash.

Neither am I in rites and ceremonies,

Nor in yoga and renunciation.

If thou are a true seeker,

Thou shalt at once see me.

Thou shalt meet me in a moment of time.

Kabir says, ‘O Sadhu’

God is in the breath of all.”


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AKBAR: TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • Conquest is not what he is known for

  • Unification and consolidation

  • Policy of conciliation


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AKBAR: TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • Abolished jizya – special tax on non-Muslims

  • Sought out Hindu holy men

  • Employed Hindus


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GENUINE CULTURAL SYNTHESIS: TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • Began as a policy of conciliation

  • Evolved into something much bigger:

  • CULTURAL SYNTENSIS OF THE FINEST ELEMENTS OF ALL THE WORLD’S RELIGIONS


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AKBAR LEADS BY EXAMPLE: TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • Married 4 wives: Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu


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FATEHPUR SIKRI TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • Visible model of policy of cultural fusion

  • Combined elements of both Muslim and Hindu traditions


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Diwan-i-kas - Akbar's audiences TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD


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Buland gate, entrance to Masjid TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD


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Din-i-Ilahi TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • ‘divine faith’

  • New religion

  • One that would incorporate both the common and the BEST elements of the world’s religions

  • Religious syncretism


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FATEHPUR SIKRI: A DREAM? TOTAL SURRENDER TO GOD

  • YET, IN A LITTLE MORE THAN 20 YEARS, FATEHPUR SIKRI WAS ABANDONED

  • POSSIBLY BECAUSE OF A SHORTAGE OF WATER

  • TODAY, IT IS QUIET AND DESERTED PLACE


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