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INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY – CHAPTER 5 - PERCEPTION. WHAT ARE 6 FEATURES OF PERCEPTION?. *knowledge-based - we interpret sensations based on what we already know; *inferential- we form perceptual hypotheses based on incomplete information;

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what are 6 features of perception
WHAT ARE 6 FEATURES OF PERCEPTION?
  • *knowledge-based - we interpret sensations based on what we already know;
  • *inferential- we form perceptual hypotheses based on incomplete information;
  • *categorical- put sensations in categories based on common features;
6 features of perception continued
6 Features of Perception (continued)
  • *relational- features can be related in a consistent, coherent way;
  • *adaptive- allows focusing on most important information to handle a situation;
  • *automatic-does not depend on necessarily on conscious processes
2 what are 2 approaches to perception
2. WHAT ARE 2 APPROACHES TO PERCEPTION?
  • *constructionist- emphasizes knowledge basis and inferential character of perception;
  • *ecological- source of information sensed directly from the environment; incoming stimuli give necessary information.
3 what are 2 principles of perception
3. WHAT ARE 2 PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION?
  • *figure/ground: figure has meaning, stands out, seems to be in front, and has contours or edges; ground is meaningless, shapeless and seems to be in back of the figure.
  • *grouping: includes proximity or closeness, similarity, continuity, closure, orientation, simplicity.
4 what are 4 aspects of perceptual constancy
4. WHAT ARE 4 ASPECTS OF PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY?
  • *definition: objects seem to remain constant in size, shape and color regardless of changing retinal image.
  • *size constancy: we believe objects stay the same size even though their images on the retina get bigger or smaller
perceptual constancy
Perceptual constancy
  • *shape constancy: objects are seen as being the same shape regardless of changing shape of retinal image.
  • *color constancy: perceived color stays the same regardless of amount of light shining on it.
5 what are 3 aspects of depth perception
5. WHAT ARE 3 ASPECTS OF DEPTH PERCEPTION?
  • *definition: interpretation of how close or far away an object is; allows perceiving the world in 3 dimensions.
aspects of depth perception continued
Aspects of depth perception (continued)
  • *6 stimulus cues: include
  • relative size,
  • height in visualfield,

.

stimulus cues
Stimulus cues…
  • interposition,
  • linear perspective,
  • reduced clarity,
  • light and shadow
aspects of depth perception continued11
Aspects of depth perception (continued)
  • *3 properties of visual system: accommodation (eye muscles tighten or relax to focus visual image);
  • convergence (rotation of eyes inward or outward to focus on close object);
  • binocular disparity (difference between retinal images as in view master example)
6 what are 3 aspects of perceived motion
6. WHAT ARE 3 ASPECTS OF PERCEIVED MOTION?
  • *looming: rapid expansion in size of retinal image, filling available space on the retina.
  • *movement gradient: objects appear to move away from horizon as you move forward.
  • *info from vestibular and tactile senses: when accelerate in a car, sense pressure from back of seat + head tilts back.
7 what are 4 aspects of perceptual illusions
7.WHAT ARE 4 ASPECTS OF PERCEPTUAL ILLUSIONS?
  • *definition: distorted or false perceptions of reality.
  • *stroboscopic motion: series of images each slightly different, presented quickly one after the other give the illusion of motion;
  • movies, for example.
perceptual illusions continued
Perceptual Illusions (continued)
  • *induced motion:
  • when there is relative motion in figure and ground, we perceive motion in the figure;
  • example: moon and clouds (small image of moon and large cloud image;
  • moon perceived as figure and seems to be moving).
perceptual illusions continued15
Perceptual Illusions (continued)
  • *distortions of shape: Poggendorf (diagonal line intersect vertical or horizontal lines);
perceptual illusions continued16
Perceptual illusions (continued)
  • Ebbinghaus (small circle surrounded by large circles seems smaller than same size circle surrounded by small circles; dieter example);
perceptual illusions continued17
Perceptual illusions (continued)
  • Ponzo (two horizontal lines between two converging lines seem to be different in length even though they are actually the same length because of linear perspective).
8 top down processing and bottom up processing in perception
8. TOP DOWN PROCESSING AND BOTTOM UP PROCESSING IN PERCEPTION
  • *top down: guided by higher level cognitive processes and by psychological factors;
  • shows effect of motivation and expectation;
top down and bottom up processing continued
Top down and bottom up processing (continued)
  • *bottom up: depends on information from stimulus to brain by way of senses
  • (inspect abstract painting;
top down and bottom up processing continued20
Top down and bottom up processing (continued)
  • listen to unfamiliar language)
9 what are 2 factors influencing top down processing
9. WHAT ARE 2 FACTORS INFLUENCING TOP DOWN PROCESSING?
  • *expectancy: context of stimulus creates expectation;
  • can bias perception by creating a perceptual set; can make recognition easier.
factors affecting top down processing continued
Factors affecting top-down processing (continued)
  • *motivation: for example, if hungry more likely to see eating places;
  • influences perception and recognition.
1 what is consciousness
1. WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • mental process of being aware of own thoughts, feelings, actions, perceptions;
  • involves self reference.
2 how has consciousness been studied
2. HOW HAS CONSCIOUSNESS BEEN STUDIED?
  • subjective: structuralists;
  • introspection to identify individual sensations; unreliable.
studying consciousness continued
Studying consciousness (continued)
  • objective:
  • eeg, additional eeg information
  • pett, additional pet scan information
objective measures of consciousness
Objective measures of consciousness
  • cat scans; additional cat scan information
  • records of electrical activity in the brain;
studying consciousness continued29
Studying consciousness (continued)
  • animal responses: to seeing own image in a mirror;
  • shows consciousness results from social interaction.
3 what are 3 levels of consciousness
3. WHAT ARE 3 LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • a)unconscious: totally inaccessible to conscious experience; e.g. blood pressure;
  • requires special methods such as biofeedback;
levels of consciousness continued
Levels of Consciousness (continued)
  • b)cognitive unconscious/preconscious: not conscious of;
  • may easily become aware of;
  • "cocktail party" phenomenon;
levels of consciousness continued32
Levels of Consciousness (continued)
  • conscious: what you are presently aware of;
  • lasts about 3 seconds
4 what are features of states of consciousness
4. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • range from deep sleep to alert wakefulness;
  • may be active or passive;
slide34

active: manipulating mental activity;

  • passive: daydreaming;
  • may result from natural processes or from choice;
states of consciousness continued
States of Consciousness (continued)
  • may experience altered states of consciousness
states of consciousness continued36
States of consciousness (continued)
  • 3 possible characteristics:
  • a)shallow careless, uncritical cognitive processes;
  • b)changed self/other perception;
  • weakened self-control or normal inhibition.
5 what are features of daydreaming
5. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF DAYDREAMING?
  • Start here april 30 2301-02
  • altered state of consciousness = attention to internal events;
  • may be fantasy oriented or unrealistic;
  • can interfere or may be harmless or helpful [relief from boredom];
why do we daydream
why do we daydream:
  • 1)may be constant/ongoing and become apparent when other mental activity ceases;
  • 2)may maintain desirable level of activity when stimulation from outside is too low.
6 what are aspects of sleep
6. WHAT ARE ASPECTS OF SLEEP?
  • stage 0:relaxed, eyes closed, awake, tension in body muscles, normal eye movements, eeg mixed with some alpha;
  • stage 0-1: slow, rolling eye movements, eeg irregular, increased alpha;
stages of sleep
Stages of sleep
  • stage 2: eeg shows pointed "spindles" + k-complexes;
  • stage 3: eeg shows spindles + k-complexes + delta waves (slower and stronger than alpha);
  • stage 4: more than 50% delta waves, deepest sleep.
slide41

IN GENERAL: 1 1/2 HOURS FROM STAGE 1 TO STAGE 4.

  • REM sleep: rapid eye movement or active sleep;
  • eeg similar to being active and awake;
rem sleep
REM sleep
  • heart rate, respiration, blood pressure resemble active waking state;
  • muscle tone decreased almost to paralysis;
  • 80% awakenings result in reported dreaming.
slide43

SINGLE NIGHT'S SLEEP: 4-6 CYCLES through stages 1-4;

  • each cycle = about 90 min (1 1/2hrs),
  • first half = mostly deep sleep (stages 3 & 4);
  • second half = mostly stage 2 and REM
7 what are 7 sleep disorders
7. WHAT ARE 7 SLEEP DISORDERS?
  • a)insomnia - problems getting to sleep or staying asleep;
  • results in fatigue during the day;
  • related to mental distress, including depression and anxiety;
slide45

Insomnia treatment:

  • temporary and dangerous/sleeping pills and alcohol;
  • more effective:
  • biofeedback, relaxation training, stress management, psychotherapy, associate bed with sleeping, avoid caffeine; .
slide46

(b) hypersomnia:

  • sleep longer than is necessary;
  • fatigue;
  • daytime naps may contribute to this problem;
slide47

(c) narcolepsy:

  • experience sudden switch into several minutes of REM sleep;
  • decreased muscle tone;
  • may collapse;
  • naps may help;  
slide48

(d) nightmares:

  • frightening dreams;
  • sometimes recurring;
slide49

(e) night terrors:

  • occur in quiet (non-REM) sleep;
  • may be associated with frightening dreams;
  • may result in wakening into state of intense fear;
slide50

(f) sleep-walking:

  • mostly starts in non-REM sleep;
  • especially stage 4;
  • usually not remembered;
slide51

(g) REM behavior disorder:

  • similar to sleep-walking;
  • in REM sleep;
  • lack usual near paralysis and lack of muscle tone;
  • may appear to act out dreams;
  • most common in men older than 50.
8 what are reasons for sleeping
8. WHAT ARE REASONS FOR SLEEPING?
  • Start here wed apr 29 2301-20
  • sleep is part of circadian rhythm:
  • cycle of waking and sleeping over a period of 24 hours;
  • linked to environmental signals, such as light and dark;
  • cycle continues in absence of external time cues;
slide53

maintenance suggests internal biological clock;

  • may be located in brain (hypothalamus receives signals from eyes, relays signals to other parts of brain, helps to maintain 24 to 25 hour rhythm);
slide54

disruption is related to depression and jet lag;

  • jet lag = fatigue, irritability, sleep difficulty ;
  • similar to effects of changes in work habits (shift work)resulting in low efficiency and more accidents;
slide55

less disruption if sleep is shifted to later time because underlying rhythm is 24 to 25 hours;

  • this is reason that traveling west is less disrupting to sleep patterns than traveling east;
  • also less disrupting if exposed to properly timed bright light and outdoor activity.
slide56

FUNCTIONS OF SLEEP:

  • a)sleep may allow body to rest and restore itself;
  • b)may allow for certain amounts of REM sleep which may help to maintain certain nerve cells in the part of the brain important to mood and alertness and allow restoring the sensitivity of those cells;
slide57

c)REM sleep may be used to check and expand nerve connections in the brain (babies experience about REM sleep about 80% pf the time spent sleeping);

  • d) helps imprint what is learned during the day;
  • e)possibly assists in thinking about and adjusting to day's events.
9 what features of dreaming
9. WHAT FEATURES OF DREAMING?
  • dreams = story-like sequences of images, sensations, and perceptions;
  • last from a few seconds to many minutes; may occur in REM sleep and non-REM sleep.
  • Dream memory: recall more likely if wake abruptly and lie quietly while writing or taping dream recollections.
slide59

WHY DREAM:

  • psychological events containing information about mental processes;
  • dreams may influence organization and recall of mental activity.
slide60

LUCID DREAMING:

  • aware of dreaming while dream is happening;
  • during this state,
  • dreamer directs content of dream
  • uses content of dreams to work through problems.
10 what are aspects of hypnosis
10. WHAT ARE ASPECTS OF HYPNOSIS?
  • DEFINITION: altered state of consciousness resulting from special techniques ;
  • characterized by responsiveness to suggested changes in experience and behavior.
  • Has been used in past to treat paralysis and other mental and physical disorders;
slide62

INDUCTION PROCEDURE:

  • focus attention on restricted set of stimuli and imagine certain feelings.
  • can focus on breathing
  • involves relaxing muscles
hypnosis
Hypnosis…
  • AS A RESULT: experience 6 types of changes: a)reduced planning;
  • do not initiate actions;
  • wait for instructions;
  • b)redistributed/redirected attention;
  • form of selective attention;
  • c)enhanced ability to fantasize or imagine;
hypnosis64
Hypnosis…
  • d)reduced reality testing;
  • do not question whether stated facts are true;
  • e)increased role-taking ability;
  • f)may experience post-hypnotic amnesia and not remember what occurred during hypnosis.
slide65

USES OF HYPNOSIS:

  • a) control pain;
  • b)reduce nausea and bleeding;
  • c)decrease use of tobacco and alcohol;
slide66

4 SIGNS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY:

  • a)more active imagination;
  • b)prone to fantasy;
  • c)ability to concentrate on single activity for a longer time;
  • d)if willing and interested, will think favorably and practice;
slide67

THEORIES TO EXPLAIN HYPNOSIS:

  • a)role: acting in a special social role;
slide69

c)dissociation:

  • blend of role and state,
  • reorganize how behavior is controlled,
  • split in consciousness,
  • relaxing of central control.
11 what are characteristics of meditation
11. WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDITATION?
  • DEFINITION:
  • set of techniques to create altered state;
  • characterized by inner peace and tranquility.
meditation
Meditation
  • METHOD:
  • usually focus or narrow attention to one thing long enough to experience pure awareness.
meditation72
Meditation
  • 4 COMPONENTS:
  • a)quiet environment,
  • b)comfortable position;
  • c)mental device to organize attention;
  • d)passive attitude.
meditation73
Meditation
  • EFFECTS:
  • a)decreased respiration, heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure and oxygen use;
  • b)increased alpha brain waves (relaxed, awake, eyes closed);
  • c)enhanced mental health, self-esteem, social openness.
meditation74
Meditation
  • use in moderation;
  • excessive use may result in dizziness, anxiety, confusion, restlessness and depression.
12 what are features of psychoactive drugs
12. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS?
  • DEFINITION:
  • chemical substances acting on the brain to create different psychological effects.
consequences of drug use
CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG USE
  • a)drug abuse - self administering in ways which are socially or medically unacceptable;
  • use too much or for too long a time;
slide77

b)psychological dependence –

  • act as if drug is needed for sense of well-being;
  • preoccupied with getting the drug;
slide78

c)physical dependence or addiction- altered physical state as well as psychological effects;

  • continued use is necessary to prevent withdrawal symptoms;
  • is associated with developing a tolerance to the substance used (more of the drug is required to experience the desired effects).
  • drug use is compulsive and uncontrollable.
causes
CAUSES
  • casual use - usually from social influences;
  • abuse - associated with individual psychological processes and self-protection;
  • may experience changes in consciousness, including racing thoughts, euphoria, hallucinations, anxiety, coma, death.
4 types of psychoactive drugs
4 TYPES OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS:
  • depressants - include alcohol, sedatives, anxiolytics/tranquilizers;
  • reduce central nervous system (CNS) activity and excitability;
  • b)stimulants - include amphetamines, cocaine, caffeine;
  • result in increased behavioral and CNS activity and excitability;
slide81

c)narcotics - include opium, morphine, heroin; result in increased sleepiness; decreased sensitivity to pain;

  • d)psychedelics - include LSD, PCP, marijuana, psilocybin;
  • result in decreased reality contact;
  • alters emotions, perceptions, and thinking patterns.
13 what are two ways in which learning is associated with drug use
13. WHAT ARE TWO WAYS IN WHICH LEARNING IS ASSOCIATED WITH DRUG USE?
  • INVOLUNTARY RESPONSES:
  • a)opposite to response associated with the drug;
  • occurs outside of awareness;
  • depends on pairing stimuli and responses;
  • associated with developing tolerance to drug (takes more drug to overcome conditioned response (increased sensitivity to pain);
  • susceptibility to accidental overdose is increased (unfamiliar setting = "not ready");
  • b)similar to response associated with drug;
  • cues associated with drug remind person of pleasurable aspects.
1 how do social psychology and social cognition relate to social comparison and social norms
1. How do social psychology and social cognition relate to social comparison and social norms?
  • Social psychology = study of how an individual's behavior and mental processes are influenced by experiences with other people.
  • Social cognition = mental processes associated with how people perceive and react to each other.
  • Example of mental process affected by other people: social comparison, in which we use other people as a basis for comparison;
  • use reference groups (=categories of people to which you see yourself belonging and to which you compare yourself) as a basis of comparison;
slide85

reference groups influence satisfaction with life;

  • may result in relative deprivation (sense that your not doing well compared to your reference group).
slide86

Social norms are products of mental processes;

  • norms are learned, socially based rules prescribing what to do and what not to do in certain situations;
  • are transmitted by agents of culture;
slide87

sometimes followed automatically;

  • make social situations less ambiguous and more comfortable;
  • example = reciprocity or tendency to respond to others as you perceive they have acted toward you.
2 what is social perception
2. What is social perception?
  • process through which we interpret information about others, draw inferences about people and develop representation about them;
  • influences how we perceive others;
  • influences how we explain why people act in certain ways.  
slide89

First impressions

  • easily formed;
  • hard to change;
  • have long-lasting influences on how you respond to other people).
social perception
Social Perception
  • based on schemas
  • coherent organized set of beliefs and expectations;
  • basic unit of knowledge;
  • generalization based on your experience;
  • influences your perception of others;
  • we use pre-existing schemas to integrate individual bits of information;
schemas
Schemas…
  • allow looking at meaningful information and fill in missing information using knowledge stored in long-term memory).
  • Forming impressions (usually done using schemas to infer information about a person) automatically on the basis of limited information;
slide92

two general tendencies which influence whether a first impression is positive or negative:

  • (1)give others benefit of doubt and form positive impression, assuming the person is similar to yourself;
  • (2)negative information is given more weight than positive information;
slide93

may assume negative information results from being unfriendly or other undesirable characteristics.

4 reasons for stability of first impressions
4 REASONS FOR STABILITY OF FIRST IMPRESSIONS
  • (A)we tend to be confident of our judgments;
  • (B) we tend to interpret new information and events in a way to support the first impression;
  • (C) we remember a general impression or schema better than later added informational details;
  • (D)we tend to act in ways which elicit behavior consistent with our first impression.
first impressions
First impressions
  • SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECIES –
  • idea that initial impression/belief/hypothesis elicits behavior which ultimately confirms it;
  • can have positive or negative effects.
attributions
Attributions
  • EXPLAINING BEHAVIOR USING ATTRIBUTION
  • we tend to rely on implicit personality theories to judge the behavior of those around us;
  • these implicit theories are based on intuition;
  • attribution is the process we use to explain why a person behaves in a certain way;
attributions97
Attributions
  • the explanation we choose helps to understand behavior,
  • or predict how someone will act in the future;
  • or decide how to control or influence the situation should it occur again;
  • we tend to attribute behavior to either internal or external causes;
attrubutions
Attrubutions
  • Start here wed may 6 2301-20
  • internal causes reflect characteristics of the person;
  • external causes reflect characteristics of the situation;
attribution example
Attribution Example
  • difference between males and females in explaining failure in academic situation
  • males tend to attribute failure to external causes;
  • females tend to attribute cause to internal cause (ability);
slide100

result is females experience lower self-confidence and increased pessimism about academic experience.

two attributional biases
TWO ATTRIBUTIONAL BIASES
  • tendencies to distort view of behavior systematically include
  • (1)fundamental attribution error (=general tendency to attribute behavior of others to internal causes;
  • consequences: may result in confidence in one's impressions of other people;
  • may lead to underestimating variability in person's behavior created by external causes; may lead person to blame victims of unfortunate circumstances);
slide102

(2)actor-observer bias (=we tend to avoid the fundamental attribution error when explaining our own behavior;

  • may attribute our own failure to external causes;
  • differences in social information available when explaining your own and other people's behavior;
attribution biases
Attribution biases
  • degree to which we attribute our behavior to internal or external causes may depend on whether the outcome is positive or negative
  • associated with self-serving bias
  • (=tendency to take credit for success and blame failure on external causes.
3 what are the self protective functions of social cognition
3. What are the self-protective functions of social cognition?
  • These include the self-serving bias which results partly from avoiding negative information;
  • attributing failure to lack of ability threatens self-esteem;
  • we prefer to think in ways that protect ourselves from threat;
  • may be associated with unrealistic optimism (=good things will happen to me; bad things will happen to other people;
self protective biases
Self-protective biases
  • feelings of unique invulnerability;
  • illusion of control.
  • associated with situations in which we are responsible for a particular outcome, such as studying for a test;
  • may use self-handicapping strategies if we anticipate the loss of self-esteem
self protective bias
Self-protective bias
  • arrange for failure to be attributed to an external cause;
  • use self-defeating behavior to explain failure not reflecting on internal characteristics;
  • may use when unsure past success can be maintained;
self protective bias107
Self-protective bias
  • actions allow short-term relief from pain
  • distort reality and causing additional problems
  • prevent achievements
  • eliminate possibility of receiving useful information about strengths and weaknesses.
4 what are the major ideas relating to interpersonal attraction
4. What are the major ideas relating to interpersonal attraction?
  • 3 KEYS TO ATTRACTION –
  • (A)environment [includes physical proximity or nearness; important because enhances familiarity - we tend to like someone if we are around them often - leads to increased comfort and decreased fear/dislike/anxiety; situation of first contact influences attraction - reflects principles of classical conditioning, in which pleasant associations increase likelihood of attraction].
slide109

(B)similarity of attitudes

  • we like people whom we believe are similar to ourselves more than those we believe to be dissimilar;
  • strong, positive relationship between proportion of shared attitudes and amount of liking;
slide110

strong influence of similar attitudes within a social network

  • if we like each other, we develop a norm to like and dislike the same people);
  • we prefer balanced relationships to unbalanced ones;
slide111

(C)physical attractiveness

  • especially in beginning friendships;
  • at first, we prefer people who are more attractive than we are;
  • later we prefer people who are similar to ourselves in attractiveness.
development of intimacy
DEVELOPMENT OF INTIMACY
  • - attraction may lead to interdependence =mutual influence of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors between two people;
  • is a defining characteristic of intimate relationship and
slide113

intimacy

  • can be predicted from the presence of
  • symmetry,
  • self-disclosure,
  • empathy.
5 key ingredients to satisfactory relationships
5 KEY INGREDIENTS TO SATISFACTORY RELATIONSHIPS
  • - (A)affection - important to reinforce self-disclosure;
  • (B)emotional expressiveness - important for enhancing feelings of closeness and commitment - supports expression of strong emotions;
  • (C)support - helps us to cope with daily hassles and increases morale;
slide115

(D)cohesiveness - feelings of closeness derived from joint activities;

  • (E) sexuality - important component of lasting adult relationships - by itself won't support satisfaction in lasting relationships –
  • requires presence of other components.
analysis of love
ANALYSIS OF LOVE
  • - 3 components:
  • sexual passion,
  • intimacy,
  • commitment;
4 types of love
4 types of love
  • resulting from different combinations of the components:
  • (1)passionate (=high in intimacy and sexual passion, low in commitment);
  • (2)fatuous (=high in sexual passion and commitment, low in intimacy);
slide118

(3)companionate (=high in intimacy and commitment, low in sexual passion);

  • (4)consummate (=optimal levels of sexual passion, intimacy, and commitment).
5 components contributing to strength of marriages
5 COMPONENTS CONTRIBUTING TO STRENGTH OF MARRIAGES -
  • (A)reciprocal self-disclosure;
  • (B)perception of equitable/balanced relationship;
  • (C)mutual trust;
  • (D)complementary or compatible personality styles;
  • (E)mutual liking and respect which affects how couple handles anger and conflict.
5 what are attitudes how are they formed and changed
5. What are attitudes? How are they formed and changed?
  • DEFINITION –
  • tendency to respond to experiences with particular thoughts, feelings, and actions.
3 components
3 COMPONENTS
  • - (A)cognitive - set of beliefs about experience;
  • (B)emotional - positive or negative evaluation toward experience;
  • (C)behavioral - how you act in response to an experience.
discrepancies among components
DISCREPANCIES AMONG COMPONENTS -
  • may occur for 3 reasons:
  • (1)competing motives and attitudes;
  • (2)many ways to express attitudes;
  • (3)because of social pressure from norms, we may suppress behavioral component while experiencing other aspects.
2 theories about situations in which behavior conflicts with beliefs or feelings
2 THEORIES ABOUT SITUATIONS IN WHICH BEHAVIOR CONFLICTS WITH BELIEFS OR FEELINGS
  • - (A)cognitive dissonance - people prefer that beliefs and thoughts be consistent with behavior –
  • when act in a way that conflicts with our thoughts, we feel uneasy and are motivated to decrease the conflict –
cognitive dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance
  • experiment involving boring task;
  • offered $1 or $20 to say "this is exciting and interesting";
  • more likely to change private expression of attitude if paid $1 than if paid $20.
self perception
Self-perception
  • (B)self-perception –
  • situations arise in which we may be unsure of our attitudes;
  • we may look back to how we acted and speculate about what our attitude must have been;
  • requires no tension and dissonance.
attitude formation
ATTITUDE FORMATION
  • affected by principles of learning, including modeling and social learning in childhood;
  • learn from parents what experiences are and how to feel, think and act toward experiences;
  • affected by classical conditioning which influences positive and negative attitudes;
attitude formation127
Attitude formation
  • operant conditioning affects attitudes as a result of various rewards and punishments we receive after acting in certain ways;
  • also form attitudes based on direct experience - exposure effect results in more positive attitude with increased contact.
attitude change and persuasive communication 4 factors
ATTITUDE CHANGE AND PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION - 4 FACTORS -
  • (A)communicator characteristics: increased change if communicator is seen as
  • credible,
  • knowledgeable,
  • trustworthy,
  • similar to audience;
slide129

(B)message characteristics:

  • can present one or both sides of a message depending on prior attitude of audience
  • if sympathetic, present one side to reinforce belief;
  • if unsympathetic, present both sides to show respect for audience attitudes and give arguments for change);
message
Message…
  • best to state explicit conclusions for increased attitude change;
  • how extreme or moderate to state conclusions depends on credibility of source.
  • if high credibility, use extreme conclusions to reinforce attitude change;
  • if low credibility, use more moderate conclusions to make change more likely);
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Message…
  • fear message is most effective if message is moderately frightening (not excessive)
  • accompanied by information on how to avoid the feared consequences.
audience
Audience…
  • (C)3 audience characteristics :
  • (1)intelligence
  • highly intelligent audience is better able to understand message and also better able to refute your message;
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Audience…
  • (2)self-esteem
  • audience with low self-esteem less confident of their own attitudes
  • may change in response to a persuasive message
  • may also be inattentive
  • may show little interest in new information;
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Audience…
  • audience with high self-esteem do attend to message but are seldom persuaded to change;
  • most likely to change attitude if moderate self-esteem –
  • give reasonable amount of attention and sufficiently unsure of attitude to allow persuasion to work;
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Audience…
  • (3)psychological involvement with issue –
  • high involvement results in attention to message and may lead to increased or decreased change –
  • high involvement with issue that is central to the individual's self-concept will result in decreased change;
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Audience…
  • high involvement + description of achieving desirable outcome will result in increased attitude change.
reactance
Reactance…
  • (D) reactance –
  • state of psychological arousal motivating individual to restore lost sense of freedom by resisting, opposing, or contradicting perceived cause of loss;
  • explains why when we are told "you can't do that" , we may be motivated to do just that.
6 what are prejudice and stereotypes and how may they be explained
6. What are prejudice and stereotypes and how may they be explained?
  • PREJUDICE - positive or negative attitude based on perception of group membership;
  • has cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects;
  • involves stereotyped thinking, positive or negative feelings, and behavioral discrimination - treating people in different groups differently.
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STEREOTYPES - impressions or schemas (sets of beliefs and perceptions about entire groups of people;

  • more powerful and potentially more dangerous than individual impressions;
  • often involves false assumptions and beliefs - that all members of the groups have the same characteristics;
  • most commonly involve observable personal characteristics.
3 theories or sources of explanation for prejudice
3 THEORIES OR SOURCES OF EXPLANATION FOR PREJUDICE
  • (A)motivational
  • involves personality of the individual;
  • authoritarian personality is a cluster of traits associated with belief in strict social hierarchy and the right to expect obedience from individuals who have lower status;
motivational theory
Motivational theory
  • motivates prejudiced individual to identify other people's social status relative to himself/herself,
  • may result in negative stereotype of people who have perceived lower status + prejudice + discrimination;
learning
Learning
  • (B)learning theories
  • people may have negative attitudes toward groups they have little contact with;
  • single negative experience may create general negative attitude toward an entire group;
  • prejudice may be learned from the experience of others through social learning - by watching and listening;
cognitive
Cognitive
  • (C)cognitive theories
  • based on beliefs and how we think;
  • stereotypes may be inevitable because of complexity of social world;
  • effective way to cope with complexity is to form social categories based on detectable differences;
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Cognitive
  • we form in-groups and out-groups based on perceived group membership;
  • in-group members are seen as more attractive,
  • having more desirable personality characteristics,
  • showing more desirable behavior, and are given more preferential treatment.
7 how may prejudice be decreased using contact with a group
7. How may prejudice be decreased using contact with a group?
  • If prejudice and stereotyping result from lack of information about a group,
  • these responses may be changed with increased contact.
decreasing prejudice
Decreasing prejudice
  • How are prejudice and stereotyping decreased?
  • receive information contrary to the stereotype;
  • realize we are more similar to the out-group members than we thought
  • recognize that not all group members are the same.
8 how do emotional reactions influence how people think of themselves
8. How do emotional reactions influence how people think of themselves?
  • develop beliefs/cognitions/mental representations about ourselves throughout life.
  • beliefs may be unified or differentiated.
  • Unified beliefs indicate we have generally the same characteristics in every situation and every role we have.
  • Differentiated beliefs indicate we see ourselves as having different attributes depending on the role or situation.
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Self-perception
  • Having unified or differentiated self-beliefs influences our emotional responses.
  • Example, failure on an exam has a more negative effect if we have a unified self-schema than if we have a differentiated self-schema.
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Self-perception
  • Self-schemas contain information about various aspects of our self-concept;
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Self-perception
  • actual- how we actually are;
  • ideal - how we would like to be;
  • ought to be - how we think we should be;
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Discrepancies among these components may cause discomfort and distress

  • difference between actual and ideal results in feelings of sadness, dissatisfaction, and disappointment;
  • difference between actual and should be results in guilt, fear, anxiety;
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Self-perception
  • treatment of anxiety and depression often involves analyzing how and why a person thinks about these discrepancies.
in conclusion
IN CONCLUSION
  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT ANYTHING WE HAVE DISCUSSED SO FAR?
  • REMEMBER THE CONTENT FOR THE FINAL STUDY GUIDE QUIZ AND EXAM WILL COME FROM CHAPTERS 5, 9 AND 17 WITH A FEW ITEMS FROM THE FIRST THREE EXAMS