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Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, and Sport. Daryl Siedentop. Basic Concept of Fitness. Chapter 7. Discussion Questions. Should health fitness become a major, independent goal of school Physical Education? Explain why, or why not. Discussion Questions.

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slide2
Discussion Questions

Should health fitness become a

major, independent goal of school

Physical Education?

Explain why, or why not.

slide3
Discussion Questions

To what extent are the differences in

kinds of fitness misunderstood by the

public?

How can the public

be better educated?

slide4
Discussion Questions

For which population groups might

cosmetic fitness be more important

than health fitness?

How can that emphasis be changed?

Should it be changed?

slide5
Discussion Questions

Give one example of how each of the

training principles is violated.

Which principle is violated most

often?

slide6
Discussion Questions

How can aerobic fitness be developed

and maintained in everyday life?

How can strength fitness be developed

and maintained?

slide7
Discussion Questions

How fit are you? Answer in terms of

your health and motor performance.

What factors in your life have

contributed to your fitness or to

your lack of fitness?

slide8
Discussion Questions

What fitness programs have you

enrolled in?

Which appealed to you? For what

reasons?

Which ones did not? For what reasons?

slide9
Discussion Questions

To what extent do youth and adults suffer

from societal pressures to look fit?

slide10
Discussion Questions

How will the focus on moderate levels of

physical activity affect fitness programs?

slide11
Introductory points
  • Landmark document:

Surgeon General’s Report on Physical

Activity and Health (1996).

  • Highlights the role of physical activity

(PA) in maintaining good health . . .

  • Rapid rise overweight and obesity in

children, youth, and adults (see also Box 7.1)

slide12
Introductory points
  • Rise in overweight and obesity across

all age groups, w. thus increased risk

of numerous chronic diseases (incl.

youth!):

Orthopedic

problems

Heart

disease

Stroke

High BP

Depression

Gallbladder

disease

Type II

Diabetes

Forms

of Cancer

Osteoarthritis

slide13
Introductory points
  • Obesity is now the second leading cause of death in the US.
  • The estimated economic burden of sedentary lifestyles in the US:

$1,200.000.000.00 . . .

  • Hence, the emergence of PA as a central part of the national health objectives.
slide14
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • “Fitness” is the umbrella term for several related concepts (see Box 7.2).

Wellness

Physical

Activity

Hypo-kinetic

Diseases

Aerobic

Exercise

CV

Endurance

Anaerobic

Leisure

Activity

Body

Composition

Healthy

Lifestyle

Health

Can you define, explain their differences?

slide15
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Types of Fitness:
  • Health fitness
  • Motor performance fitness
  • Cosmetic fitness
slide16
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Health Fitness
  • Everybody should strive for this.
  • Is a key component of Wellness.
  • Helps prevent hypo-kinetic diseases

& improve quality of life (especially

through aerobic-type exercises) .

(Remember: Health is not merely the absence of disease!)

slide17
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Health Fitness - Its components

(see also Box 7.3).

  • Cardio-vascular endurance.
  • Flexibility.
  • Muscular strength.
  • Muscular endurance.
  • Body composition
  • Maintaining each component is essential
  • Gains are fleeting: “You gotta keep at it!”
slide18
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Health Fitness
  • Maintaining each component is essential

So, why the emphasis on “daily PA”?

“You gotta keep at it!”

“There is no off-season.”

“You snooze, you lose”

THE GAINS ARE FLEETING

slide19
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Motor Performance Fitness
  • More specific to improving

performance (typically in a Sport).

  • Its components:(see also Box 7.4)
  • Very much sport-, skill, & position-

specific.

  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Power
  • Reaction time
  • Speed
slide20
Contemporary Understanding of Fitness
  • Motor Performance Fitness
  • Rank the components in order of

importance for the following skills:

  • Free throw (BB).
  • Tennis Serve.
  • Shot put (T&F).
  • Golf drive.
  • Pitch in Golf.
  • Hurdles (T&F).
  • Guarding a Wide Receiver (FB)
  • Agility
  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Power
  • Reaction time
  • Speed
slide21
Cosmetic Fitness
  • “Looking good/fit” is in
  • Important for both men and women.
  • It was not always thus.
  • If not confused/equated with Health

fitness, it can be positive.

slide22
Cosmetic Fitness
  • Its dark side:
  • Eating disorders.
  • Tinning (1985):

“the cult of slenderness.”

  • Cultural pressures to look thin are

enormous (e.g., consider the media, magazines,

weight-loss industry, -quackery).

slide23
The Dose-Response Debate
  • Exercise epidemiology’s central

question:

How much, for how long, and at what

intensity (dose) does one need to

exercise, to obtain the health benefits

(response) ?

slide24
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • The link between PA and “all-cause

mortality.”

  • Inverse and linear!
  • Moving from being sedentary to

being moderately active provides the

greatest gains in reducing the risk of

dying prematurely from chronic

diseases.

slide25
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • Fitness is improved when the amount of PA increases relative to a combination of:
  • Frequency (how often)
  • Intensity (how hard)
  • Time (how long)
  • Type (what kind)

“Progressive overload”

slide26
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • The F.I.T.T. Principle applied to

increasing Cardio-Vascular Endurance

  • Frequency: 3-5 days of the week.
  • Intensity: 60-90% of max HR (see Box 7.5).
  • Time: 20-60 minutes.
  • Type: Cycling , running, aerobics.
slide27
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • Health is improved when one moves

from being sedentary to accumulating

at least 30 minutes of PA at moderate

levels of intensity.

  • Can be accumulated in shorter bouts.
  • PA Guidelines for children and adolescents

differ from adults.

slide28
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • PA Guidelines for adolescents:
  • Daily:

At least 30 min. of planned exercise.

  • Three or more times p. wk.:

20 minutes in Moderate to Vigorous

Physical Activity (MVPA).

NASPE, 1997

slide29
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • PA Guidelines for children:
  • Daily:

Accumulate at least 60 min. of

age-appropriate PA (incl. MPVA).

  • Most PA should be intermittent in

nature.

NASPE, 2004

slide30
The Dose-Response Debate (Cont’d.)
  • Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity

(MVPA):

  • Includes a broader range of PA’s.
  • Any PA that requires at least the energy

expenditure needed for a brisk walk.

  • MVPA concept has influenced how we

view fitness education for children &

youth.

slide31
The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness
  • How does SES affect health and quality

of life?

  • Competing views:
  • One’s fitness & health is an individual

responsibility . . . .

vs.

  • One’s environment influences the degree

to which one can develop, maintain, or

improve fitness/health (A socio-

ecological view).

slide32
The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness
  • A socio-ecological view of health/fitness
  • Evidence:

Lower inequality = increased life

expectancy.

  • Health is now seen as a social commodity . . .
  • How equitable is the access to:

Safe activity spaces, nutritious food, health

care, health information, etc.?

slide33
The Social Gradient in Health and Fitness
  • A socio-ecological view of health/fitness
  • While individual responsibility is essential,

how do we ensure that as a society ALL

have access/opportunity to a physically active

lifestyle?

slide34
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles
  • General Training Principles (using the F.I.T.T.

concept as the basis):

  • Specificity.
  • Progressive overload.
  • Recovery.
  • Intensity.
  • Duration.
slide35
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Health Fitness Training:
  • Targets all health fitness components:
  • CV endurance.
  • Muscular Strength (esp. the core!).
  • Flexibility.

Pilates/Yoga!

slide36
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Continuous & Interval Training:
  • Continuous: HR is sustained in training zone for 30 minutes (or more) 3-5 times p. wk.)
  • Interval: Rest periods are interspersed with 2-3 min. outs of high intensity activity bouts (80% of max. HR).
  • Both can build and maintain

fitness levels.

slide37
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Anaerobic Training:
  • Short duration exercise (w. intervals of rest)

without taxing the aerobic (O2) energy

system.

  • Must work at near maximum capacity.
  • Can build muscle mass, bone

density, lower resting metabolic

rate.

slide38
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Anaerobic Training: (cont’d.)
  • Goals: Build explosive power, agility,

employ greater force.

  • Essential for: Sprinters, Gymnasts, Wrestlers,

Football players.

slide39
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Strength Training:
  • Strength programs vary the following

variables:

  • Amount of resistance per lift.
  • # of repetitions (sets).
  • # of sets p. workout.
  • # of workouts p. wk.
slide40
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)
  • Muscular endurance:
  • Lower resistance.
  • Higher # of repetitions (sets).
  • Muscular strength:
  • Higher resistance.
  • Lower # of repetitions (sets).

At or > 75% of 1-rep max.

strength will improve

slide41
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)
  • General training principles apply to

developing muscular strength and -endurance.

  • For ex., rest periods will vary depending on

goals of a program.

  • Done w. either (or both)

free weights or machines.

slide42
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Strength Training: (cont’d.)
  • Major muscles typically targeted:
  • Chest
  • Back
  • Shoulders
  • Triceps
  • Biceps
  • Quadriceps
  • Hamstrings
  • Neck
  • Forearms
  • Lower legs
  • Strength conditioning is

part of every sport!

slide43
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Flexibility:
  • Essential (but often neglected) component.
  • Static Flexibility: Range-of-motion limit

around a joint

  • Dynamic Flexibility: Rate of increase in

muscle tension as it is stretched.

slide44
Fitness-Training Concepts & Principles (Cont’d.)
  • Flexibility: (cont’d.)
  • Decreases with age.
  • Preferably done during cool-down phase.
  • At least 3 times a week, w. 4-5 bouts per

muscle.

  • Stretch slow, & hold for 30s.
slide45
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • What makes fitness program effective ...

…for a soccer player?

…for a golfer?

…for you?

It depends on the goal . . .

. . . Performance?

. . . Looks?

. . . Health?

slide46
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • Measuring Health-related Fitness
  • Two primary methods:
  • Fitness Tests.
  • Direct measures of CV fitness &

body composition.

slide47
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • Fitness Tests
  • Common test components:
  • Body Composition.
  • Back flexibility.
  • Abdominal Strength.
  • Upper body strength.
  • cardiovascular capacity.
slide48
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • Fitness Tests
  • Common Fitness tests:
  • Fitnessgram®
  • Physical Best.
  • Reporting of results:
  • Norm-referenced (comparison to like

population).

  • Criterion-referenced (comparison to

a standard associated with health).

  • Interpretation zones.
slide50
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • Body composition (a strong predictor of risk for

degenerative diseases).

  • Common assessment types:
  • Skinfold measurements (relatively easy

and inexpensive)

  • Hydrostatic weighing.
  • Densitometry (dual X-ray absorptiometry).
slide51
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • MVPA.
  • Possible assessment tools:
  • HR Monitor
  • Accelerometer
  • Pedometers
  • Activitygram
  • Metabolic equivalent (MET)
  • AAHPERD Functional Fitness Test
  • Each has its advantages and disadvantages.
slide52
Measurement of Fitness & Physical Activity
  • Informal Measurement of Fitness:
  • More valued by typical adult.
  • Examples:
  • Simple HR check (checking threshold &

recovery).

  • Tracking time and distance for the

same exercise.

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