The Shoulders on Which We Stand - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Shoulders on Which We Stand

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  1. From the “Father of our Nation” to the “Queen Mother of the Civil Rights Movement in our Nation”, adult literacy educators have empowered millions of Americans with the ability to use the English language, read, write and compute at levels needed to function in various contexts. Whether these educators followed a phonics or whole language approach to teaching literacy, they all taught basic skills in a functional context of relevance to learners. The Shoulders on Which We Stand Ten Pioneering Adult Literacy Educators in the History of Adult Literacy Education in the United States 1. George Washington “Father of our Nation” 2. Susie King Taylor 3. Harriet A. Jacobs 4. Cora Wilson Stewart 5. J. Duncan Spaeth 6. Wil Lou Gray 7. Frank C. Laubach 8. Paul A. Witty 9. Francis P. Robinson 10. Septima Poinsette Clark “Queen Mother of the Civil Rights Movement in our Nation”

  2. Harriet A. Jacobs (1813-1897)“Incidents in the life of a slave girl written by herself” (1861) Harriet Jacobs was born a slave and as a little girl her master’s daughter taught her to read and write. When Jacobs got to be around 12 years old her master got interested in her for sexual favors. Frightened, Jacobs ran and hid in her grandmother’s house. She hid in a garret of the house for 7 years before escaping to freedom. She became the first former slave to write her own narrative of her life.

  3. In this extract from her book, Jacobs indicates that she used the A, B, C, approach to teaching reading indicating that she followed a decoding (phonics) approach to reading instruction. She also used a functional context approach by using the Bible for the instructional material, which is the material Uncle Fred wanted to learn to read. This illustrates the importance of making the content of instruction relevant to the desires of the adult learner.

  4. Later in her life Jacobs taught literacy in the Freedman’s Schools during the reconstruction following the Civil War. The materials used once again were made relevant to both children and adult learners by using African-American illustrations and providing materials relevant to the life of the learners.

  5. Later in her life Jacobs taught literacy in the Freedman’s Schools during the reconstruction following the Civil War. The materials used once again were made relevant to both children and adult learners by using African-American illustrations and providing materials relevant to the life of the learners.

  6. In 1911 Cora Wilson Stewart, Superintendent of Schools in Rowan County, Kentucky, got teachers to volunteer to teach the illiterate parents of school children. Because of dangers in the hills and hollows, adults could only come to school on nights when the moon was out. This led to the schools becoming known as the Moonlight Schools of Kentucky. Stewart introduced the first newspaper for adult literacy learners, she coined the theme “Each One Teach One” and wrote the first series of books for country learners. She was the first adult literacy educator to address a major political party when she spoke at the Democratic Party convention in 1920.

  7. Country Life Readers First Book Community Development Compare…….

  8. Country Life Readers First Book Community Development …….and Contrast

  9. Country Life Readers First Book Sustainable Development Soil Conservation On The Farm

  10. Country Life Readers First Book Sustainable Development Soil Conservation On The Farm

  11. Country Life Readers First Book Health Literacy

  12. Country Life Readers First Book Health Literacy

  13. Cora Wilson Stewart provided an early version of Family Literacy

  14. World War I Selective Service reported that 25% of adults being called for service were illiterate, poorly literate, or non-English speaking.

  15. Soldier’s First Book Instructions to teachers indicates that Cora Wilson Stewart advocated the whole language approach to teaching. Like her other materials, the Soldier’s First Book follows a Functional Context Education approach.

  16. In the first edition of his Camp Reader J. Duncan Spaeth thanked Cora Wilson Stewart for her aid. But he favored a phonics approach and in the revised book he dropped his mention of CWS who favored whole language. He went on to introduce the first teacher’s manual for adult literacy educators focused on a phonetic system of reading. He also provided training in teaching non-English speaking soldiers. World War I Army camp.

  17. Spaeth followed the same Functional Context Education approach as used by Cora Wilson Stewart. But he always included a sound drill to teach phonics.

  18. Wil Lou Gray (1883-1984) State Superintendent of Adult Education in South Carolina Influenced by work of Cora Wilson Stewart 1923 Initiated “Sign –Your-Own-Name” and “I’ll Write My Own Name” Campaigns

  19. 1932 Wil Lou Gray introduced first scientific research on adult education in study of Opportunity Schools she started demonstrating that both White and African-American adults of all ages could learn literacy and other skills thought by many to be beyond the “plasticity” of adults.

  20. Frank Laubach, like Cora Wilson Stewart earlier, came up with the slogan “each one teach one” but he popularized the idea around the world. In 1955 at the age of 70 he started Laubach International, the first major organization for adult literacy education in the United States.

  21. Laubach favored phonics and innovated by using the first visual mnemonics in adult literacy education to help learners learn the sight-sound correspondences in phonics. For the letter “b”, using the English chart, one says, See this, this is a bird (pointing to the bird). Then pointing to the “b” letter with the faded bird beneath it, one says, this looks like a bird and says “buh”, the sound of the letter. Then the next two columns are used to repeat the words and letter sounds to form a mental association of the sight and sounds of “b”.

  22. Laubach followed the same functional context approach of teaching literacy using materials relevant to learners as used by the earlier pioneers of adult literacy education.

  23. Witty was a follower of the work of William S. Gray who “fathered” the Dick and Jane readers. In those books, children who were learning to read could identify with the fictional children and their activities. Witty followed that approach in developing materials for the Army literacy program. He invented a fictional soldier, Private Pete, who was a literacy student in the Army just as the real students were. This let the real students identify with the fictional soldier who was learning literacy.

  24. Witty introduced the use of audio-visual technology in teaching adult literacy. World War II Filmstrip for Teaching Reading

  25. Soldier literacy students viewed and discussed the filmstrip with no words, then with one word, and then words in sentences using a “word” (whole language) approach like that used in the Dick and Jane readers.

  26. In the Army Reader, Witty introduced the first use of a programmed or instructional systems approach to teaching adult literacy. The book had four parts, each with a pre-test and a post-test. If the soldier passed the pre-test to Part One he could skip that module and go on to Part Two. If he failed the Part One pre-test he had to study the module and then take the post-test and pass it to go on to Part Two.

  27. Like other adult literacy pioneers, in the Army Reader Witty followed a functional context approach and integrated basic skills instruction in materials with which the soldier learners were familial in their daily lives in camp. Teaching math was made relevant with tasks such as figuring out how much insurance to get for Mom or Dad or Sweetheart if the soldier did not come back from the war.

  28. A newspaper entitled “Our War” was developed and included the first use of a comic strip featuring Private Pete and his sidekick Daffy.

  29. Another innovation in adult literacy education was the development of a “photo novel” using real people to play the roles of Private Pete and his sidekick Daffy. This was used in a program for soldiers getting discharged from the Army who missed literacy training on entry into the Army or whose skills had deteriorated from little use in the war. The book used the same systems approach as with the Army Reader.

  30. Illiterate and Non-English Speaking Soldiers Fighting for Freedom in World War II Learn to Read and Write Writing in the July 1943 issue of “Our War”, a newspaper for the literacy students of World War II, a student wrote: “This is my first letter in English. I have learned to read and write so that I can help protect or country.” Private Porfirio C. Gutierrez A mother of a soldier wrote to the Army [in original spellings and punctuation]: “dear sir: I thank you all for Learning My child to read and wright I don’t Know how to thank you all Because My child did no know nothing it is really high apprishated Because I did not have the time to send him to school I did not have no husband I raised him from a Baby By my self and that is all my help and I thank you and I thank you when you wrote me and siad My Boy did that I was so glad I did not Know what to do and I realy appreshated it.” Very truly yours, M--- W---

  31. During World War II the Army needed personnel with knowledge of chemistry and physiology to deal with chemical and biological warfare. They sent more highly literate troops to colleges to learn these subjects but found that many lacked the study skills needed for college level reading and study. So the Army got Francis Robinson, professor of psychology at Ohio State University to develop a study skills training course for Army personnel. Robinson developed the famous SQ3R formula, the most widely used study skills strategy in the world. It deals with what the reader does before reading, during reading, and after reading. This general approach forms the basis for most reading comprehension, study skills approaches taught in college developmental reading courses in the U.S.

  32. Septima Poinsette Clark (1898-1987) “Queen Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”

  33. Septima Poinsette Clark 1957-January 7 Opened citizenship school on Johns Island for African-American adult illiterates; used “kinesthetic method” to teach them to write their names, read South Carolina election laws to qualify for registering to vote, do other functional tasks. 1961-Left Highlander to work with Dr. Martin Luther King in the Southern Christian Leadership Conference developing citizenship schools and in 4 years trained 10,000 teachers and registered nearly 700,000 African-Americans to vote in the South.

  34. Clark followed the whole language approach in teaching reading, but like the other pioneers of adult literacy, she followed a functional context education approach using materials relevant to the goals of the learners.

  35. The so-called “kinesthetic method” used by Septima Poinsette Clark was based on a method developed by Cora Wilson Stewart when she found that the first thing adult literacy students wanted to learn was how to write their names. This overcame a large stigma of shame for them. Astonishingly, a simple technique for teaching illiterate adults to write their names lead to the eventual registration to vote of millions of African-Americans and stimulated politicians to pass the Civil Rights laws of the mid-20th century.

  36. Speaking of a cleaning woman who asked to be taught to read and write in the Citizenship School on Johns Island, South Carolina, so that she might prepare herself to vote, Septima Poinsette Clark wrote: “This woman is but one of those persons whose stories I could tell. One will never be able, I maintain, to measure or even to approximate the Good that this work among the adult illiterates on this one island has accomplished. How can anybody estimate the worth of pride achieved, hope accomplished, faith affirmed, citizenship won? These are intangible things but real nevertheless, solid and of inestimable value.”