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Exposure to Delinquent Peers. Why S.L. measure? Strength of Relationship R’s = .2 - .4 are common Criticisms. Measuring delinquency twice Causal (time) ordering (birds of a feather. Pro-Criminal Attitudes. Why a measure of S.L.? Strength of relationship? R’s > .4 Criticism.

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exposure to delinquent peers
Exposure to Delinquent Peers
  • Why S.L. measure?
  • Strength of Relationship
    • R’s = .2 - .4 are common
  • Criticisms
  • Measuring delinquency twice
  • Causal (time) ordering (birds of a feather
pro criminal attitudes
Pro-Criminal Attitudes
  • Why a measure of S.L.?
  • Strength of relationship? R’s > .4
  • Criticism

CAUSAL ORDERING: Rationalization are

simply post-hoc excuses, they do not “cause”

crime, but only allow the criminal to wiggle

out of trouble

social learning and the life course
Social Learning and the Life-course
  • When do the concepts of social learning (Akers/Sutherland) theory operate?
  • Gerald Patterson’s Social-Interactional Theory
    • Focus on early childhood, and rewards/punish
    • “Definitions” and “Imitation” not central
    • Rather, “Parental Efficacy”
gerald patterson osls
Gerald Patterson (OSLS)
  • 1982 “Coercion Theory”
  • 1992 “Social- Interactional Approach”
    • Oregon Social Learning Center
    • Very Applied: Work with families with young, antisocial boys.
patterson s social interactional model
Patterson’s Social-Interactional Model

Family Management

Outcomes

Context

  • Family Structure
  • SES
  • Difficult Infant
  • High Crime
  • Neighborhood
  • Divorce/Stress
  • Unskilled
  • Grandparents
  • Parental Efficacy
  • Monitor
  • Recognize
  • Discipline
  • R+
  • Problem Solving

Antisocial

Child

Social

Incompetence

later in the theory
Later in the Theory
  • Antisocial Child Affects the Environment
    • Peer Rejection
    • Poor Academic Performance
    • Parental Rejection
  • This leads to further problems
    • Deviant Peer Group
    • School Failure
    • Delinquency
beyond surveys
Beyond Surveys
  • Establishing causation via experiments with offenders
    • What is the policy implication of S.L.T.?
    • Measure both “intermediate objectives” and long-term outcomes
patterson and oslc research
Patterson and OSLC research
  • Recruited “high risk” children
    • Stealers, fire-starters, truants…
  • Focus on training parents
    • Also cognitive/behavioral methods to build social competence
  • Able to substantially reduce delinquency, improve school performance
don andrews 1980
Don Andrews (1980)
  • Group treatment for Prisoners and Probationers
    • Manipulated content (definitions), group leaders (quality of role model), and self-management
    • Reductions in recidivism ranged from 10-25%

Support for the Sutherland/Akers Tradition

achievement place
Achievement Place
  • Houses with a married couple serving as “parents”
    • Served as “role models”
    • Token economy + verbal physical praise
    • Peer groups (“positive peer culture”)
  • Evaluations are mixed (some positive)
    • Tend to lose positive effects after release
    • Be wary of “peer culture” programs
cognitive programs
Cognitive Programs
  • Changing what criminals think
    • “Criminal Thinking Errors”
      • (Rationalizations, Definitions)
  • Changing how criminals think
    • Anger management
    • Prosocial Skills

SUPPORT FOR BANDURA, PATTERSON

summary of applied research
SUMMARY OF APPLIED RESEARCH
  • Cognitive and/or Behavioral Programs are the best bet for reducing Recidivism
    • “Meta-analysis” findings are impressive
    • Average reduction in recidivism across 45 studies?
      • >30%
summary of s l t
SUMMARY OF S.L.T
  • GOOD

1. Substantial Empirical Support (survey and experimental)

2. Useful Policy Implications

3. Scope and Parsimony

  • BAD

1. Causal ordering?

2. Is all antisocial behavior “learned?”

review of social learning theories
Review of Social Learning Theories
  • Bandura
    • How aggression is learned
    • operant conditioning, cognitive, vicarious
  • Sutherland/Akers
    • How deviant values are transmitted
    • operant conditioning, vicarious learning
    • Antisocial values (definitions) are central
  • Patterson
    • Early childhood, family processes and “context”