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DMAP-FR: Integrated Mobility and Service Management with Failure Recovery Support for Mobile IPv6 Systems. Greg Bilodeau Mike Reed. What is DMAP-FR?. An extension of Dynamic Mobility Anchor Points (DMAP) DMAP is an extension of Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6)

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DMAP-FR: Integrated Mobility and Service Management withFailure Recovery Support for Mobile IPv6 Systems

Greg Bilodeau

Mike Reed

what is dmap fr

What is DMAP-FR?

An extension of Dynamic Mobility Anchor Points (DMAP)

DMAP is an extension of Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6)

HMIPv6 is an extension of Mobile IPv6

mobile ipv6

Mobile IPv6

Mobility in IPv6 Networks.

MIPv6 is expected to have wide deployment in the future for all-IP mobile systems.

More mobile apps will access multimedia and data services over IP

mobile ipv6 advantages over mipv4

Mobile IPv6 - Advantages over MIPv4

Specialized "foreign agent" routers not needed.

Support for route optimization fundamental part of protocol.

Packets sent to mobile node (MN) sent using IPv6 routing header rather than IP encapsulation

Dynamic home agent (HA) discovery mechanism returns single reply to the mobile node.

mobile ipv6 problems

Mobile IPv6 - Problems

Does not solve local or hierarchical forms of mobility management.

Effective mobility and service management schemes to reduce network traffic needed.

Fault tolerance for service continuity despite network router failures.

hierarchical mipv6

Hierarchical MIPv6

Allows local mobility handling.

Designed to reduce the amount of signalling traffic between the MN and home agent (HA) and correspondent nodes (CNs).

Utilizes local home agents called mobile anchor points (MAPs).

advantages of hmipv6 and maps

Advantages of HMIPv6 and MAPs

Unlike FA in IPv4, MAPs not required on every subnet.

Limit the amount of IPv6 signalling traffic outside the local domain

Allow MNs to hide their location from CNs.

MN may chose which MAP (or MAPs) to associate with.

disadvantages of hmipv6 and maps

Disadvantages of HMIPv6 and MAPs

Static domain in terms of number of subnets covered.

Single point of failure.

While mobility is addressed, service and performance management is not considered.

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP)

Integrated mobility and service management.

MN not only determines which MAP to bind to, it determines which access router (AR) acts as a MAP.

MAP binding based on both mobility and service requirements of the specific MN.

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap1

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP)

Location handoff: MN moves across subnet boundary

Service handoff: MN moves across DMAP domain boundary

MAP domain size: number of subnets in region covered by the MAP

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap the tradeoff

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - The Tradeoff

Choosing a MAP "further" from the MN decreases the number of service handoffs, but increases the triangular routing overhead and location handoffs

Choosing a MAP "closer" to the MN reduces the intra-subnet routing, but increases the frequency of  service handoffs

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap finding optimal map

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - Finding Optimal MAP

MN must be capable of collecting required statistical information.

Goal is the minimization of "communication cost" per time unit.

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap performance evaluation1

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - Performance Evaluation

Calculating MN2DMAP:

F(Mark(Xs)+1) returns the number of hops between the current subnet and the DMAP separated byMark(Xs)+1 subnets.

The argument of the F(x) function is added by 1 to satisfy the initial condition that Mark(Xs) = 0 in which the DMAP has just moved into a new service area, so at the first subnet crossing event, the distance between the DMAP and the subnet is one subnet apart

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap performance evaluation2

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - Performance Evaluation

Calculating NewDMAP:

As MN must inform HA and all N client nodes of new RCoA

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap performance evaluation3

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - Performance Evaluation

Calculating average communication overhead

Includes delays between CN and DMAP, DMAP to AR of current subnet, and wireless link between AR and MN

dynamic mobile anchor points dmap performance evaluation4

Dynamic Mobile Anchor Points (DMAP) - Performance Evaluation

Calculating average location change overhead

dmap fr

DMAP-FR

Dynamic Mobility Anchor Points – Fault Recovery

The addition of fault tolerance to DMAP.

failure recovery design
Failure Recovery Design
  • Assume two things:
    • For each Access Router there is an overlapping coverage from other Access Routers since the failure of an AR will disconnect all Mobile Nodes attached to it
    • in the case that a router(not a Mobility Anchor Point) fails or a link goes down, it can be handled by the recovery mechanism of the routing protocol.
failure recovery design cont d
Failure Recovery Design Cont'd
  • Based on dynamically selecting an Access Router as the Mobile Anchor Point of a Mobile Node. 
  • It can recover from two kinds of failures:
    • The current Access Router can become the Mobile Node's DMAP if the DMAP fails
    • Access Router failure/recovery can be treated as disconnection/reconnection. The failure of DMAP can be detected by not receiving the announcement message by timeout.
failure recovery design cont d2
Failure Recovery Design Cont'd
  • There are Three Cases for Failure Recovery:
    • Failure of MN's DMAP which is not current AR.
    • Failure of MN's DMAP which is current AR.
    • Failure of MN's current AR.
failure modes failure of mn s dmap which is not current ar
Failure Modes - Failure of MN's DMAP which is not current AR
  • Suppose that the MN is currently under AR2 and the current DMAP is AR1 (based on Figure 1). 
  • In this case, the Current AR becomes the MN's DMAP. AR2 will inform the HA and CN's that it is now the DMAP.
failure modes failure of mn s dmap which is current ar
Failure Modes - Failure of MN's DMAP which is current AR
  • The MN is under AR1 which is the current DMAP and it fails. In this case, since the wireless coverage area of the current AR is overlapping, the MN could be under radio range of several other subnets.
  • The MN will register with a new AR near by which will become the new MN's DMAP. AR2 will inform the HA and CN's  of the Regional Care of Address change.
failure modes failure of mn s current ar
Failure Modes - Failure of MN's current AR
  • The MN is under AR3 when AR3 fails and the DMAP is on AR1. 
  • In this case the MN locates another AR, i.e. AR1, or AR2, to replace AR3. The MN will register with the new AR through a binding message.
performance analysis cont d
Performance  Analysis cont'd
  • Using Stochastic Petri Nets because of:
    • their ability to deal with general time distribution for events
    • their concise representation of the underlying state machine to deal with a large number of states
    • their expressiveness to reason about a MN's behavior as it migrates from one state to another in response to events occurring in the system.
performance analysis cont d1
Performance  Analysis cont'd
  • The number of tokens accumulated in place Xs, that is, Mark(Xs), represents the number of subnets crossed by the MN since the MN entered a new service area.
  • We allow it to accumulate to K (the subnet size we're trying to test), at which point we perform a service handoff.
petri net explanation
Petri Net Explanation
  • The Mobility rate at which location handoffs occur is s which is the transition rate assigned to Moving.
  • When a Mobile Node moves across a subnet area, a token is put in place Moves
petri net explanation cont d
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • After moving into a subnet, the Mobile Node obtains a new Care Of Address, and informs the DMAP of the Care Of Address change. 
  • This is modeled by enabling and firing transition MN2DMAP while disabling transition Moving.
  • After MN2DMAP is fired, a token in place MOVES flows to place Xs, representing that a location handoff has been completed and the DMAP has been informed of the Care of Address change of the Mobile Node.
petri net explanation cont d1
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • If the Number of tokens in place Xs has accumulated to K then it means that the Mobile Node has just moved into a new service area and a service handoff ensues. 
  • This is modeled by assigning an enabling function that will enable transition MovingDMAP after K tokens have been accumulated in place Xs.
  • After transition MovingDMAP is fired, all K tokens are consumed and place Xs contains no tokens, representing the action that the DMAP has just moved into a new service area.
  • The rate at which transition MovingDMAP fires depends on the cost of informing the Home Agent and Corresponding Nodes of the DMAP Care of Address change. 
petri net explanation cont d2
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • The DMAP alternates between "work" and "Failure" states. Initially the DMAP is in the work state. 
  • After some time has elapsed, the DMAP goes to the failure state. 
  • This is modeled by transition failing. 
  • Note that if the DMAP is already in place Failure, transition failing cannot fire.
petri net explanation cont d3
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • While the DMAP is in failure mode, after time has elapsed representing the recovery time, the DMAP goes to the work state. 
  • The is modeled by the transition recovering.
petri net explanation cont d4
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • For case 1 the DMAP fails but the current AR is alive, as illustrated in Figure 1.
  • In this case, the current Access Router will become DMAP, the new DMAP will inform the Home Agent and Corresponding Nodes of the Regional Care of Address change.
  • This is modeled by firing transition recovering with a transition rate reflecting the cost.
  • Firing this transition will flush all the tokens in place Xs as if a service handoff had happened. This is modeled by a variable input arc from place Xs to transition recovering.
petri net explanation cont d5
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • For Case2, the DMAP fails and the current Access Router happens to be the DMAP, as illustrated in Figure 1 where the MN's current AR and DMAP is AR1 and AR1 fails.
  • In this case, the MN will register with a new AR near by
  • The new AR  will become the Mobile Node's DMAP who will then inform the Home Agent and Corresponding nodes of the new Regional Care of Address.This event is also modeled by firing transition recovering.
petri net explanation cont d6
Petri Net Explanation cont'd
  • For Case 3, the current AR fails but the DMAP is alive, as illustrated in Figure 1.
  • In this case, the Mobile Node will register with another Access Router nearby. 
  • The new Access Router then only needs to inform the DMAP of the Care Of Address change. 
  • This event can also be modeled by transition recovering.
  • Note that the rate to transition recovering depends on the system state which will be characterized later. 
characterizing rate of the recovering transition
Characterizing rate of the Recovering transition
  • When transition Recovering fires, the Mobile Node will contact the DMAP. If the DMAP fails and the current Access Router is the MAP, the Mobile Node will register with a new Access router near by. 
  • The new access router will become the DMAP and inform the Home Agent and Corresponding Nodes of the RCoA change. 
  • If the DMAP fails while the current AR is still alive, the current AR will become the DMAP.
  • In either case the current Access Router chosen becomes the new DMAP and the cost involved is to inform the Home Agent and Corresponding nodes. 
characterizing rate cont d
Characterizing rate cont'd
  • Since the new DMAP is F(Mark(Xs)) + g hops away from the failed DMAP, the cost can be parameterized as { N [ b + F(Mark(Xs)) ]  + [ a + F(Mark(Xs)) ]  + g } t 
  • The rate transition Recovering is the reciprocal of this quantity.
overall communication costs
Overall communication costs
  • A Mobile Node and its DMAP determine the service area dynamically to minimize the overall network signaling costs for mobility management, service management and fault tolerance related operations incurred by the Mobile Node. There are three costs considered:
    • The service cost
    • The mobility cost
    • The failure recovery cost
overall communication cost
Overall communication cost
  • CTotal = Cservice * l  + Cmobility * s + Crecovery  *df
    • CTotal = overall cost incurred per time unit
    • Cservice = average communication cost to service a data packet.
    • Cmobility = average communication cost to service a location handoff, including one that can trigger a service handoff.
    • Crecovery = the communication overhead for the network to recover from DMAP or AR failures.
    • l = Data packet rate between the Mobile Node and Corresponding node.
    • df = DMAP failure rate
average communication cost to perform failure recovery
Average communication cost to perform failure recovery
  • Ci,recovery = 
    • gt + F(Mark(i) + 1) t
      • if the current AR fails while the DMAP is still alive
    • gt  + at + F(Mark(i) + 1) t + N(bt + F(Mark(i) + 1) t)
      • if the DMAP fails 
cost versus k
Cost versus K
  • DMAP-FR has an optimal service area size Kopt to minimize the overall network traffic cost, when given a set of parameter values characterizing the mobility and service behaviors of the Mobile Node and failure behaviors of Access Routers in the Mobile IP networks. 
kopt versus d f
Kopt versus df
  • Kopt increases as  df increases. 
  • The reason is that as the failure rate increases, the Mobile Node's DMAP likes to stay at a large service area to reduce the location handoff cost such that a location handoff will most likely only involve informing the DMAP of the location change without incurring a service handoff to migrate the DMAP.
cost difference between hmipv6 and dmap fr
Cost difference between HMIPv6 and DMAP-FR
  • The cost difference between HMIPv6 and DMAP-FR as a function of Service-to-Mobility Ratio.
  • We observe that the cost difference between HMIPv6 and DMAP-FR degenerates,then sharply rises as SMR continues to increase.
  • We conclude that DMAP-FR performs better than HMIPv6, especially when SMR is high.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • DMAP-FR - efficient mobility and service management with failure recovery supporting Mobile IPv6 environments. 
  • Devised a computational procedure to compute the optimal service area size that would minimize the overall network traffic cost.
  • Compare our scheme with HMIPv6 
  • Performance gain due to a proper selection of the best service area dynamically.
references
References
  • W. He and I.R. Chen, "DMAP-FR: Integrated Mobility and Service Management with Failure Recovery Support for Mobile IPv6 Systems,"  6th IEEE International Conference on Information Technology: New Generation, Las Vegas, April 2009.
  • I. R. Chen, W. He, and B. Gu. DMAP: A scalable and efficient integrated mobility and service management scheme for Mobile IPv6 systems. Wireless Personal Communications, 43(2):711–723, 2007.
  • R. Ghosh and G. Varghese. Fault-tolerant Mobile IP. Technical Report WUCS-98-11, Washington University, 1998.
  • D. Johnson, C. Perkins, and J. Arkko. Mobility Support in IPv6. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3775.txt, IETF, Work in Progress, 2004.
  • H. Omar, T. Saadawi, and M. Lee. Supporting reduced location management overhead and fault tolerance in Mobile-IP systems. In IEEE International Symposium on Computers and Communications, pages 347 – 353, 1999.
  • H. Soliman, C. Castelluccia, K. El-Malki, and L. Bellier. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 mobility management. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4140.txt, IETF, RFC, 2005.
  • T. You, S. Pack, and Y. Choi. Robust hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (RH-MIPv6): an enhancement for survivability and fault-tolerance in Mobile IP systems. In IEEE 58th Vehicular Technology Conference, pages 2014–2018, 2003.
  • X. Zhang, J. Castellanos, and A. Campbell. P–MIP: Paging extensions for Mobile IP. ACM Mobile Networks and Applications, 7(2):127–141, March 2002.