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Psychology- Chapter 4. Perception test- Watch the white team and count how many passes they make between them. Do not count out loud or say anything until the end of the test. Sensation and Perception. Sensation

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psychology chapter 4
Psychology- Chapter 4
  • Perception test-
  • Watch the white team and count how many passes they make between them. Do not count out loud or say anything until the end of the test.
sensation and perception
Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation
    • Simulation of sensory receptors and transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system
    • Interpret sensory stimulation

  • Absolute threshold-
    • Weakest amount of stimulus that can be detected (half the time by half the people)
  • Difference thresholds
    • minimum amount of difference between two stimuli
  • Signal detection theory
    • distinguishing sensory stimuli by strengths and also physical setting, mood, attitudes
sensory adaptation
Sensory adaptation
  • more sensitive to weak stimuli and less sensitive to unchanging stimuli
  • Walking into a dark theatre your eyes will adjust.
  • Hear a train every day you will not notice it very much
  • Light- electromagnetic energy,
  • wavelengths
  • Roy G. Biv
  • Ultraviolet and Infrared
the eye
The Eye
  • Pupil- sensitive to emotions lets in light
  • Lens: Focuses the image
  • Cornea: Protection, Focus light on the back,
  • Iris: Colored part of the eye
  • Optic nerve: takes image to brain (pink)
  • Retina: Film where the image is projected
more parts to the eye
More parts to the eye
  • Photoreceptors: rods light dark black white, cones colors
  • Blind spot:
  • Rods and cones 100 million rods, 5 million cones
20 20 vision
20/20 vision
  • 20/20 vision is a term used to express normal visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision) measured at a distance of 20 feet. If you have 20/20 vision, you can see clearly at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. If you have 20/100 vision, it means that you must be as close as 20 feet to see what a person with normal vision can see at 100 feet.
  • 20/20 vision does not mean perfect vision. It only indicates the sharpness or clarity of vision at a distance. There are other important vision skills, among them peripheral awareness or side vision, eye coordination, depth perception, focusing ability and color vision that contribute to one's overall vision ability.
color vision
Color vision
  • Complementary colors
  • Afterimage
  • Color blindness
Color blindness simualtion

seeing facts
Seeing Facts
  • Most people blink every 2-10 seconds.
  • Each time you blink, you shut your eyes for 0.3 seconds, which means your eyes are closed at least 30 minutes a day just from blinking.
  • If you only had one eye, everything would appear two-dimensional. (This does not work just by closing one eye.)
  • Owls can see a mouse moving over 150 feet away with light no brighter than a candle.
  • The reason cat's and dog's eyes glow at night is because of silver mirrors in the back of their eyes called the tapetum. This makes it easier for them to see at night.
  • An ostrich has eyes that are two inches across. Each eye weighs more than the brain.
  • A chameleon's eyes can look in opposite directions at the same time.
  • A newborn baby sees the world upside down because it takes some time for the baby's brain to learn to turn the picture right-side up. One in every twelve males is color blind.
flip book points
Flip book points
  • 40 points
  • Black and white Color Lots of Detail
  • 20 pages- 40 points 15- pages 40 points 10 pages 40
  • 18 pages- 38 points 13- pages 38 points 9 pages 38
  • 16 pages- 36 points 11- pages 36 points 8 pages 36
  • 14 pages- 34 points 9 - pages 34 points 7 pages 34
  • 12 pages- 32 points 7 - pages 32 points 6 pages 32
  • 10 pages- 30 points 5 - pages 28 points
  • 8 pages- 26 points
  • Pitch: frequency of the sound wave
  • Loudness: amplitude of the sound wave
  • Timbre: Distinctiveness of a sound
the ear
The ear
  • Cochlea: fluid/cilia
  • Hammer
  • Anvil
  • Stirrup
  • Eardrum
  • Ear canal
  • Eustachian tube
  • Auditory nerve
  • Conductive deafness: Middle ear (bones, and ear drums), hearing aids
  • Sensorineuraldeafness: Inner ear, no cure
  • Stimulation deafness: Inner ear,
hearing facts
Hearing Facts
  • When you go up to high elevations, the change in pressure causes your ears to pop.
  • Children have more sensitive ears than adults. They can recognize a wider variety of noises. Mosquito ringtone
  • Dolphins have the best sense of hearing among animals. They are able to hear 14 times better than humans.
  • Animals hear more sounds than humans.
  • An earache is caused by too much fluid putting pressure on your eardrum. Earaches are often the result of an infection, allergies or a virus.
  • Olfactory nerve
taste and smell video
Taste and smell video


Take a deep breath. Air is sucked up into your nostrils over bony ridges called turbinates, which add more surface area to your sniffer. The air travels over millions of olfactory receptor neurons that sit on a stamp-size sheet, the olfactory epithelium, on the roof of the nasal cavity. Odor molecules in the air stimulate and inhibit the receptors.


Each aroma sets off a signal made by the receptors that travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory bulb sits underneath the front of your brain. Signals from the bulb tell your brain what reeks.

Humans can recognize 10,000 different odors. However, no two people sense anything the same.

smelly facts
Smelly Facts
  • Dogs have 1 million smell cells per nostril and their smell cells are 100 times larger than humans!
  • Humans use insect warning chemicals, called pheromones, to keep away pesky insects!
  • People who cannot smell have a condition called Anosmia.
  • If your nose is at its best, you can tell the difference between 4000-10,000 smells!
  • As you get older, your sense of smell gets worse.
  • Children are more likely to have better senses of smell than their parents or grandparents.
  • Taste buds
  • Bitter
  • Sweet
  • Sour
  • Salty
  • We have almost 10,000 taste buds inside our mouths; even on the roofs of our mouths.
  • Insects have the most highly developed sense of taste. They have taste organs on their feet, antennae, and mouthparts.
  • Fish can taste with their fins and tail as well as their mouth.
  • In general, girls have more taste buds than boys.
  • Taste is the weakest of the five senses
skin senses
Skin senses
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Pain
body senses
Body Senses
  • Vestibular sense
  • Kinesthesis
    • Arms through the floor
    • Arms raise above the head
    • Touch your finger- hands wrapped.
the pinocchio experiment with body image
The Pinocchio experiment with body image

* Find 2 willing (and good) friends

* Sit on a chair blind-folded, and ask your friend (let’s call her Sam) to sit on a chair in front of you, with her back to you.

* Ask your other friend to take your right hand and put it on Sam’s nose

* Tap and stroke her nose in a gentle random manner, making exactly identical movements with your other hand, on your own nose.

* Continue this for 60 seconds

About 50% of people will have the extremely odd sensation that their nose is 3 feet long, or somehow their nose is elsewhere!

slide42 freaky body illusions broom through body

vestibular sense
vestibular sense
  • The vestibular sense is also connected to parts of the brain that tell you when it is time to vomit.  This is the cause of motion sickness.
  • If you spin hard enough and then suddenly stop, the tiny current keeps going for a little bit, and gives you the sensation that you are still spinning, but in the opposite direction.  Your brain may try to compensate for this, and cause you to fall or at very least feel dizzy.
  • You can also confuse these canals when you take a shower and allow hot or cold water into your ear.  The temperature changes can cause currents to develop that wind up feeling just like spinning, and you may get dizzy.
  • 10 in 2 minutes
  • Perceive whole objects when gaps are present
figure ground perception
Figure ground perception
  • What we see as background and what we perceive as figure influence our perception
  • Escher
power point or word
Power point or word
  • Place optical illusions in a power point
  • Things that express consistancy, perspective, continuity, similarity, contrast, figure ground, ect…… no limit. But there will be expectations of high quality…..
  • Things that are near each other influence each other
  • Group objects that are similar to each other
  • We like to see a smooth continuous pattern rather than individual parts
common fate
Common fate
  • See things moving together you perceive them as belonging to each other
perception of movement
Perception of movement
  • Stroboscopic motion
depth perception
Depth perception
  • Monocular cues
    • Perspective
    • Clearness
    • Overlapping
    • Shadow
    • Texture Gradient
binocular cues
Binocular cues
  • Retinal disparity- floating finger
perceptual constancy s
Perceptual constancy’s
  • Size
  • Color
  • Brightness
  • Shape
  • Speed