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  2. Definitions Burial site – anywhere burials take place. Burial ground – a specific area set aside for interments; not all burial grounds are associated with church buildings or religious foundations (Jewish, Killeens etc., Civic) Graveyard – a yard or area of land in which graves have been established but can be synonymous with a burial ground. (a famine graveyard). Churchyard – a burial area adjacent to a church, abbey etc. Cemetery – specifically established for the purposes of burial usually by local councils and civic authorities.

  3. An Altar / Chest Tomb

  4. A Collapsed Altar Tomb John Ryan of Danganmore: collapsed Altar tomb

  5. Vernacular Style Headstones from Ardmayle County, Tipperary Notes Wavy decorated tops Identical IHS decoration with carpenter’s tools Reversed N as И andspelling of MONUMENT – carved by the same mason.

  6. Similar Vernacular Style Another vernacular headstone at Derrynahinch, Kilkenny (note the spelling of Carloe)

  7. Word Clipping Newtown Jerpoint – Example of word clipping

  8. Headstone Lettering Note Letters used tighter to save space

  9. Layout Not Planned And Incorrect Spelling

  10. John Mulcael’s Stone John Mulcael at Danganmore – 1758 (note skull)

  11. Original view of John Mulcael's stone

  12. Inscription of John Mulcael's stone Danganmore Graveyard, County Kilkenny Primitive decoration of two forward facing skulls on each side of stone, with pedimented cross. Inscription reads: God be merciful to the Soul of John Mulcaelwho departed May 26th 1758 aged 60 yrs. Immediately adjacent (although now in a tree) to a stone dedicated to the Delaney and Mulcahy family. Tree roots have turned up ancient holy medal which we re-buried.

  13. Aylward Stone Derrynahinch Aylwardstone Derrynahinch with crude skulls and word wrapping

  14. Crucifixion Scene Beautifully carved but with cruder carved inscription – from Glendalough, County Wicklow. (George Thomson: Lettering on Gravemarkers in England and Ireland)

  15. Cullen Crucifixion Scene Kilnahue, Wexford GoreyChurchyard Heritage Group

  16. Pre Cromwellian Crucifixion scene Ballybur, County Kilkenny

  17. KnocktopherCrucifixion scenes Edmund Aylward1846, Knocktopher Front & Back

  18. Countess of Brandon Ellis, Countess of Brandon born Ellis Agar (1709 - 1789) The memorial, designed by Edward Smyth and located in Gowran Church, Dublin

  19. Humphrey O'Sullivan Irish Language headstone 1838. Hedge School Master and Irish scholar at Callan, County Kilkenny

  20. Standing, Status and Achievements Example of Standing, Status and Achievements – the Moran Family, Gowran Opposite this stone and within close by the walls lies interred the body of Mrs Mary Moran alias Holiday of the City of York and lately of Gowran, who departed this life the 8th day of June 1755 aged 55 years. This stone was erected out of pious memory to the deceased this first day of February 1765. Maurice Moran Esq., Atty (Attorney) at Law died June 5th 1811. Edward Moran. Rev officer (Revenue Officer) died 1810 or 1819. St Mary’s Gowran, County Kilkenny.

  21. Standing, Status and Achievements Example of Standing, Status and Achievements – Mr Patrick Cuthbert, Gowran Sacred to the memory of Mr Patrick Cuthbert for many years Post Master of Gowran, he fulfilled the duty of his profession and employment during his life time with Honour, Honesty and Integrity. He died in the Honourable cause of His King and Country in the 48thyear of his age June 25th 1798. Reader remark a fond father, a sincere friend and possessed of a benevolent heart to the distressed. Masonic symbols on stone. St Mary’s Gowran, county Kilkenny.

  22. Status Of A Named Woman Example of a woman whose status is via her husband and brother Erected to the memory of Mrs Mary Cronin alias White, wife to Mr EdmdCronyn of the City of Kilkenny, Merchant, and only sister to John White Esq., of Whitestown in the county of Waterford. She departed this life (April 1809 aged 61). Altar tomb. St Kieran’s Church of Ireland Graveyard, Kells, Kilkenny

  23. Status Of An Almost Unnamed Woman Example of an almost unnamed woman and 4 unnamed children The most important person is the husband who is the only one fully named and given a date of death Here rests the remains of his wife Judith and four of their children predeceased, the body of Thomas Prim of Annamult in the County of Kilkenny, Gentlemen. He died 5th July 1775 aged 60. Altar tomb. St Kieran’s Church of Ireland Graveyard, Kells, Kilkenny

  24. Status Of A Woman Of Virtues Example of womanly virtues To the memory of Marianne Baillie, only child of G.C. Bucahan, proprietor of the English Academy. In a short but estimable life she has all those virtues and qualities of head and heart which shed lustre on the several relations of Daughter, Wife, Mother and friends. In a long and painful Distemper she displayed an all embracing edifying fortitude, patience and resignation with true piety and Christian hope which alone can inspire. She died May 9th 1819 in her 19th year. This monument is erected by a father whose affliction is as deep as could be. NOTE : Husband is not even mentioned. Why? St Mary’s Church (Church of Ireland), Kilkenny

  25. The Forgotten Irish – Soldiers of the Raj