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What is anatomy? • The term 'anatomy' is derived from the Greek word 'temnein' meaning 'to cut'. • Clearly, therefore, the study of anatomy is linked, at its root, to dissection • The study of the structure of the body • Anatomy forms the basis for understanding of a patient's disease by physical examination or using the most advanced imaging techniques and the practice of medicine.
Systemic Anatomy • Skeletal • Muscular • Nervous • Integumentary • Cardiovascular • Respiratory • Digestive • Urinary • Endocrine • Reproductive • Lymphatic
Anatomical position This position is very important for studying the human body. Anatomical positionis described as the body standing, the head is held erect, face looking forward, the mouth is closed, the facial expression is neutral, the rim of bone under the eyes is in the same horizontal plane, feet placed together and the toes point forward, arms straight by the side and palms facing forward with the fingers straight.
Supine Position • Recumbent position • Erect Position Prone Position Semi Prone Position Semi supine position R - Laterally Recumbent Position R - Laterally Recumbent Position
Fowlers Position Lithotomic Position Trenlenburg Position
Anatomical planes of the body SagittalPlane: Sagittal Plane divides body into right and left dissimilar halves. Sagittal plane is parallel to sagittal suture of skull. Any planar slice paralleling this plane is called parasagittal plane. Coronal Plane (Frontal Plane): Coronal Planedivides body into anterior and posterior halves at right angle to sagittal plane. Transverse Plane (Horizontal plane): Slices through body at any height and perpendicular to sagittal and coronal planes.
Saggital plane Horizontal (or cross) section Frontal (or coronal) plane
The terms that describe location Superior: Means that a body part is located above another part, or toward the head. Inferior: Means that a body part is below another part, or toward the feet. Medial: Refers to being close to the midline. Lateral: Means that a body part is farther away from the midline. Anterior (Ventral): Means that a body part is located toward the front. Posterior (Dorsal): Means that a body part is located toward the back. Proximal: Means that a body part is closer to the point of attachment or closer to the trunk.
Distal: Means that a body part is farther from the point of attachment or farther from the trunk. Superficial: Means that a body part is near the surface. Deep: Means that a body part is near the core. Contralateral: Things that located on the opposite sides of your body. Example: (Right arm and left arm). Ipsalateral: Things that located on the same side of the body. Example: (Right arm and right leg).
Movements: basic terminology Flexion: Bending (decrease in the angle between two bones or organs). Extension: Opening (increase in angle between two bones or organs). Abduction: Movement away from the midline. Adduction: Movement towards the midline. Circumduction: Circular movement of a limb. Eversion: Turning outward Inversion: Turning inward Pronation: Twisting or turning of bones over one another [term specific to the forearm bones, radius and ulna]
Supination: Untwisting bones over one another [term specific to the forearm bones, radius and ulna] Rotation: Twisting in the long axis of a bone (toward medial or lateral) Eversion: Turning sole of foot outward or laterally Inversion: Turning sole of foot inward or medially
(Composed Phrase ) • Superolateral • Superomedial • Inferomedial • Inferolateral • Anteroinferior • Anterosuperior • Posteroinferior • Posterosuperior
Remember (Direction Phrase Mix Direction) • Superior – Inferior • Cephalo – Caudal • Inferior – Superior • Caudo - Cephalic • Anterior – Posterior • Posterior – Anterior • Medio – Lateral • Latro – Medial • Proximo- Distal • Disto – Proximal