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Oligopoly and Monopolistic Competition. Characteristics of a monopolistically competitive market. Many buyers and sellers Differentiated products Easy entry and exit. Relationship to other market models. Monopolistic competition is similar to perfect competition in that:

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Presentation Transcript
characteristics of a monopolistically competitive market
Characteristics of a monopolistically competitive market
  • Many buyers and sellers
  • Differentiated products
  • Easy entry and exit
relationship to other market models
Relationship to other market models
  • Monopolistic competition is similar to perfect competition in that:
    • There are many buyers and sellers
    • There are no barriers to entry or exit
  • Monopolistic competition is similar to monopoly in that:
    • Each firm is the sole producer of a particular product (although there are close substitutes)
    • The firm faces a downward sloping demand curve for its product
the firm s demand curve and entry and exit
The firm’s demand curve and entry and exit
  • As firms enter a monopolistically competitive market, the demand facing a typical firm declines and becomes more elastic.
short run equilibrium in a monopolistically competitive industry
Short-run equilibrium in a monopolistically competitive industry
  • Economic profits lead to entry and a reduction in the demand facing a typical firm.
long run equilibrium in a monopolistically competitive industry
Long-run equilibrium in a monopolistically competitive industry
  • Entry continues until economic profit equals zero for a typical firm.
  • This equilibrium is often referred to as a “tangency equilibrium.”
product differentiation and advertising
Product differentiation and advertising
  • Monopolistically competitive firms may receive short-run economic profit from successful product differentiation and advertising.
  • These profits are, however, expected to disappear in the long run as other firms copy successful innovations.
location decisions
Location decisions
  • Monopolistically competitive firms often locate near each other to appeal to the “median” customer in a geographical region. (e.g., fast food restaurants and car dealerships)
  • Film about monopolistic competition
oligopoly
Oligopoly
  • a small number of firms produce most output
  • a standardized or differentiated product
  • recognized mutual interdependence
  • difficult entry.
strategic behavior
Strategic behavior
  • Strategic behavior occurs when the best outcome for one firmdepends upon the actions and reactions of other firms.
kinked demand curve model

A

MC

B

AC

C

D

MR

O

Q

Kinked demand curve model
  • Other firms are assumed to match price decreases, but not price increases.
game theory examples
Game theory examples

Examines the payoffs associated with alternative choices of each participant in the “game.”

  • Prisoners’ dilemma (Film)
  • Duopoly pricing game
shared monopoly
Shared monopoly
  • Joint profits are higher when firms behave as a shared monopoly
  • Cartelarrangement is illegal in the U.S. and UE
  • A cartel arrangement can maximize industry profits
  • Each firm can increase its profits by violating the agreement
  • Cartel agreements have generally been unstable.
bibliography
Bibliography:
  • http://www.oswego.edu/~kane/eco101.htm
  • Czarny B. „Podstawy ekonomii”, PWE, 2002