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Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines . Brittany Sutter, Jackie Hallstrom , Andre Krouse , Samantha Brown. Video . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XUBnzp3BBw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nIXUjzyMe0.

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Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

Brittany Sutter, Jackie Hallstrom, Andre Krouse, Samantha Brown

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

video
Video
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XUBnzp3BBw
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nIXUjzyMe0

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

materials level of magazine readings
Materials:Level of Magazine readings
  • Adult-Focused magazines
    • Allure, Cosmopolitan, Elle, Glamour, Jane, Mademoiselle, Marie Claire, Mirabella
  • Teen-Focused magazines
    • Seventeen, Teen, YM

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

participants
Participants
  • 205 Female undergraduate survey participants
    • 17 to 24 year of age (M=19.08)
    • Introduction to Psychology course requirement at The University of Michigan
    • 69% Caucasian
    • 17% Asian/Pacific islander
    • 9% African American
    • 4% Latina
    • 1% Multi-cultural

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

participants1
Participants
  • Asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual intercourse.
    • 0 = Virgin
    • 1 = Sexually Experienced
    • Result: 48% were sexually experienced
  • Asked to indicate their Religiosity based on a on a 5-point scale.
    • How religious are you?
    • How often do you attend religious services?
    • Result: (M = 3.55)

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

reading motivations
Reading Motivations

Participants were asked to complete a reading motivation measure— “I like to read women’s magazines...” Followed by 22 possible reasons to rate on a 6-point scale.

  • Entertainment Motives—fun, enjoyable, relaxing. (M = 4.78)
  • Connectedness to Women Motives—to understand other women, learn about women’s lives. (M = 3.63)
  • Self and Appearance Motives—to get beauty, health, weight loss tips. (M = 3.77)
  • Sex Advice Motives—to get information about sex and relationships, to understand what men like. (M = 3.47)

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

attitudes about sex roles and sexual relationships
Attitudes about Sex Roles and Sexual Relationships
  • Measured on a 6-point scale the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with each of the following 5 statements. (Higher scores represent greater acceptance of the viewpoint).
  • Stereotypical Male Sexual Role Subscale—tests assumptions that men are sex driven, lack relationship skills, and fearful of commitment. “Men have a hard time being faithful to one woman”(M = 3.47)
  • Submissive/Alluring Female Sexual Role Subscale— tests notions that women should be passive, indirect, physically attractive and coy in attracting men—”using her body and looks is the best way for a women to attract a man.” (M = 2.99)

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

attitudes about sex roles and sexual relationships1
Attitudes about Sex Roles and Sexual Relationships
  • Female Sexual Role Subscale—tests beliefs that women should be sexually assertive and should focus on their own sexual pleasure—”women should learn to be sexually skilled to derive the most pleasure from their sexual encounters.”(M = 3.76)
  • Sex as a Recreation Subscale—focuses on sexual intercourse as a fun and casual activity. (M = 1.63) “Having sex is just something fun to do”
  • Sex as a Risk Subscale—tests about the physical and emotional risks associated with sexual intercourse—” the risk of AIDs and other STDs is reason enough to avoid sex before marriage.” (M = 4.10)

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

research question 1
Research Question 1
  • What is the connection between levels of magazine exposure and women’s attitudes about sexual roles and relationships?
  • Teen-focused hypothesis: frequent reading would be associated with stronger endorsement of a submissive/alluring female sexual role, stereotypical male sexual role, and a view that equates sex with risk
  • Adult-focused hypothesis: frequent reading would be associated with greater endorsement of a sexually assertive female role and view sexual intercourse as recreational, and weaker support of a view of sex as a risk.

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

results for research question 1
Results for Research Question 1
  • Teen Focused (Hypothesis partly Confirmed)
  • Heavy teen-focused magazine reading = stronger support of a stereotypical male sexual role and support of a submissive/alluring female role.
  • Partly since did not confirm view of sex as risk
  • Adult Focused (Hypothesis Confirmed)
  • More frequent reading of adult-focused magazines = strong support of both the sexually assertive female role and a view of sex as recreation
  • More frequent reading of adult focused magazines = less support of a view that equates sex with risk and danger

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

research question 2
Research Question 2
  • What is the connection between women’s motivations for reading magazines and their attitudes about sex roles and relationships?
  • Hypothesis: Reading for learning purposes would be associated with reader’s sexual attitudes and femininity ideologies, but reading for entertainment reasons would not

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

results for research question 2
Results for Research Question 2
  • Reading for Learning/Information
  • Reading magazines for sexual or appearance advice was associated with a submissive alluring female sexual role.
  • Reading for sex advice was further associated with women’s stronger endorsement of a recreational view of sex and their greater proclivity to censor their voices in relationships with others.
  • Women who read magazines for sex advice were more supportive of an assertive female role
  • Reading women's magazines for appearance advice was associated with a stronger inclination to objectify ones own body
  • Reading for the connection with other women was associated with a weaker inclination to do so
  • Reading for Entertainment
  • Reading contemporary magazines for entertainment purposes was associated with more self-censorship

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

other results
Other Results
  • Demographic Results
  • Sexually experienced participants were associated with being less likely to use inauthentic voice
  • Being sexually experienced was assoc with being less likely to objectify ones own body
  • Reading Level Results
  • Greater exposure to adult focused magazines was associated with less self-censorship

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

critical review
Critical Review
  • Pros
  • 1. There were four subcategories for why women read the magazines.
  • 2. In studying entertainment media, most data has been collected from television and movies. This study elaborated on that by looking at the influence of magazines
  • 3. Taking background information into account. (sexual experience and religiosity)
  • Cons
  • 1. The participants are only 205 female college students from the University of Michigan. Of those, they were predominately (69%) Caucasian and college-aged (M= 19.08). The study cannot be applied to both an adult and teenage population.
  • 2. The study cannot imply causation. The author’s aren’t sure if teens are reading the magazines because they already possess a certain attitude or if they’re acquiring the attitude from reading the magazines.
  • 3. The scale used for measuring sexual experience only had the option of either virgin or non-virgin. There are different levels of sexual experience that weren’t accounted for. It would have been more effective to offer a Likert scale.

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

reference
Reference
  • Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.

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Kim, J. & Ward, M. (2004). Pleasure Reading: Associations Between Young Women’s Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women’s Magazines. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 48-58.