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Effects and Sources of Air Pollutants. CE 524 January 2008. Slides noted as AWMA are from: Understanding Air Quality from the Air and Waste Management Association Do not make copies of these slides for distribution. Major Provisions of 1970 CAAA. Established NAAQS

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effects and sources of air pollutants
Effects and Sources of Air Pollutants

CE 524

January 2008

Slides noted as AWMA are from: Understanding Air Quality from the Air and Waste Management Association

Do not make copies of these slides for distribution

slide2

Major Provisions of 1970 CAAA

  • Established NAAQS
    • Primary – allows adequate margin of safety to protect public health
    • Secondary – protects public from effects of air pollution
      • Plants, animals, visibility, public enjoyment of life & property
  • Set new source performance standards for new stationary sources
  • National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) applied to existing and new plants
  • Required states to submit state implementation plans (SIPs)
    • Method to set AQ standards for air quality regions within state
slide3

Air Quality Criteria

  • Based on levels to protect human health
    • Sensitive members of the population
  • Developed based on relationship between exposure and short and long-term health and welfare effects
  • Effects are expected to occur when pollutant levels exceed criteria for specified time period
    • Short-term -- immediate protection
    • Chronic exposure
  • Pollutant levels cannot legally be exceeded during specific time period in a specific geographical area
slide4

National Emission Standards

  • Limit amount or concentration of pollutant emitted from a source
  • Helps maintain or improve existing air quality in a region to meet state or local standards
  • Based on what is achievable with current technology
slide5

Basis for Regional Standards

  • Availability of technology
  • Presence of monitoring stations
  • Ability to enforce standards
  • Understanding of synergistic effects of different pollutants
  • Preparation of diffusion model (predicting ambient concentrations)
  • Accurate estimates of growth or decline in industry or population
criteria air pollutants
Criteria AirPollutants

• Carbon Monoxide (CO)

• Hydrocarbons

• Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

• Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

• Particulate Matter (PM10)

• Lead (Pb)

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

current naaqs

Pollutant

Averaging Time

Primary Standard

Secondary Standard

CO

8 hr

9 ppm

Same

1 hr

35 ppm

Same

NO2

Annual average

0.05 ppm

None

SO2

Annual average

0.03 ppm

None

24 hr

0.14 ppm

None

3 hr

None

0.5 ppm

PM10

Annual arithmetic mean

50 g/m3

Same

24 hr

150 g/m3

Same

PM2.5

Added 1997

Annual arithmetic mean

15 g/m3

Same

24 hr

150 g/m3

Same

Ozone

1 hr

0.12 ppm

Same

8 hr

0.08 ppm

Same

Lead

3 months

1.5 g/m3

same

Current NAAQS
hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Result when fuel molecules in the engine do not burn or only partially burn
  • React in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to form ground-level ozone, a major component of smog
  • Ozone irritates the eyes, damages the lungs, and aggravates respiratory problems
    • most widespread urban air pollution problem.
  • A number of exhaust hydrocarbons are also toxic, with the potential to cause cancer.

Source: EPA 400-F-92-007 August 1994 Fact Sheet OMS-5

particulate matter
Particulate matter
  • Dispersed airborne solid and liquid particles (specific size criteria in chapter)
  • Settles out of air at rate which is function of size and weight (measured in micrometer µ = 10-4 cm)
  • Dust, water vapor, etc
  • Affect health and visibility
particulate matter pm 10 also regulating pm 2 5
ParticulateMatter(PM10)Also regulating PM2.5

• PM10 is a general term for tiny airborne particles (under ten microns), e.g., dust, soot, smoke

• Primary sources are fuel-burning plants and other industrial/ commercial processes

• Some are formed in the air

• They irritate the respiratory system and may also carry metals, sulfates, nitrates, etc.

• Some overall decreases seen but trends may be masked by meteorological changes

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

health effects of pm
Health Effects of PM
  • Particles directly enter respiratory system
  • Particles themselves may be toxic
  • Particle may interfere with mechanisms which clear the respiratory tract
  • Particle may act as carrier of absorbed toxic substance
    • 20 to 60% of particles between 1 and 2.5 µm breathed will penetrate into lungs
      • Enter deep tissue
sulfur dioxide so 2 sulfur trioxide
SulfurDioxide(SO2)Sulfur trioxide

• This term is used for a number of compounds containing sulfur

• Primarily caused by burning of coal, oil and various industrial processes

• They can affect the respiratory system

• They react in the atmosphere to form acids, sulfates and sulfites

• Substantial reductions due to controls at the sources and through use of low sulfur fuels

  • Make up 5 to 20% of total suspended particles
  • Major damage to materials
  • Contributes to acid rain

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

oxides of nitrogen nox
Oxidesof Nitrogen(NOx)

• Nitrogen dioxide is the prominent one (it's the yellow-brown color in smog)

• NOx results from high temperature combustion processes, e.g. cars and utilities

• They affect the respiratory system

• They play a major role in atmos- pheric reactions

• Overall levels unchanged but transportation sources are cleaner

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

carbon monoxide co
CarbonMonoxide(CO)

• Odorless, colorless gas

• Caused by incomplete combustion of fuel and air

• Most of it comes from motor vehicles

• Reduces the transport of oxygen through the bloodstream

  • Poses immediate health risk in high concentrations (> 750 ppm)
  • Hemoglobin has 240 times affinity for CO as for oxygen

• Affects mental functions and visual acuity, even at low levels

• Improvements are being made but there are still problems in some urban areas

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

lead pb
Lead(Pb)

• Long known as one of the worst toxics in common use

• Emitted from gasoline additives, battery factories and non-ferrous smelters

• Affects various organs and can cause sterility and neurological impairment, e.g. retardation and behavioral disorders

• Infants and children especially susceptible

• Control of mobile sources has been exceptionally successful

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

other air pollutants
OtherAirPollutants

• Carbon dioxide

• Chlorofluorocarbons

• Formaldehyde

• Benzene

• Asbestos

• Manganese

• Dioxins

• Cadmium

• Still others which are yet to be fully characterized

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

categories of air pollution
Categories of Air Pollution
  • Ambient:
    • air pollution in outdoors
    • Focus of class
    • Regulated by EPA
  • Indoor
    • Air pollution indoors, buildings
    • EPA studies issues but no federal regulations
  • Occupational
    • Pollutants in the workplace (mining, chemical operations, etc)
    • Regulated by OSHA
  • Personal exposure
    • Persons willful exposure
    • Cigarette, gases, etc
global warming
GlobalWarming

• Certain gases in the troposphere absorb some of the infrared radiation reflected from the earth

• Carbon Dioxide is the major one (50%).

• Others include methane (18%) and CFCs (14%). CFCs also are responsible for destroying the stratospheric ozone layer

• The United States produces over 20% of the world's "greenhouse" gases

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

the extent of air pollution today

Stationary

Mobile Sources

Sources

CO

VOCs

NOx

SO

2

PM

10

Lead

TheExtentofAirPollutionToday

Overall, 54 million metric

tons from mobile sources

in 1990 (43% of total)

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

who is affected by air pollution
Who isAffected byAir Pollution?

63

Over 74 million people are subjected to high levels of at least one of these pollutants

Millions of people living in counties with air quality that exceeds each NAAQS (1990 data)

22

19

9

5

1

Ozone CO NO2 PM10 SO2 Lead

Fundamentals of Air Pollution and Motor Vehicle Emissions

John T. White, EPA

world wide
World wide
  • WHO indicates that 2.4 million people die from causes directly attributable to air pollution
  • More than for car accidents
visibility
Visibility
  • Although not a pollutant, visibility is a major pollution concern
  • Haze
  • Smog
air toxics
Air Toxics
  • Get stuff from EPA
  • http://epa.gov/otaq/toxics.htm
when is it a problem
When is it a problem
  • Classified as pollutant once their presence results in damage to humans, plants, animals or materials
  • Concentration

1 volume of gaseous pollutant = 1 ppm

106 volumes (pollutant + air)

0.0001 percent by volume = 1 ppm