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PSG Scoring for the Pediatric Patient. Jennifer Chen Hopkins, M.D. D. ABP, ABIM & Sleep Medicine Texas Society of Sleep Professionals October 28, 2011. Objectives. Indications for pediatric sleep study Normal sleep and EEG changes during childhood development

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psg scoring for the pediatric patient

PSG Scoring for the Pediatric Patient

Jennifer Chen Hopkins, M.D.

D. ABP, ABIM & Sleep Medicine

Texas Society of Sleep Professionals

October 28, 2011

objectives
Objectives
  • Indications for pediatric sleep study
  • Normal sleep and EEG changes during childhood development
  • Differences between adult and pediatric PSG scoring and interpretation
kids who may need a sleep study
Kids who may need a sleep study
  • Suspected OSA (snoring + “ADHD”/behavior problems, tonsillar hypertrophy, Down syndrome, craniofacial malformation, obesity, HTN)
  • Suspected Narcolepsy
  • Suspected PLMD
  • Suspected seizure disorder
  • Congenital neuromuscular disorder
  • Suspected central hypoventilation
  • Infants: apnea of prematurity, severe GER, ALTEs/SIDS
normal sleep in kids
Normal sleep in kids
  • Birth to 1 year:
    • Sleep 50-75% of day, gradually decreases
    • Circadian rhythm begins by 6 mo., still 2-3 naps
    • NREM-REM cycles shorter (50 min/50 wga), gradually increases
    • More REM: 40-50% of TST
  • Preschool kids:
    • 12-14 hours sleep/24h
    • Usually phase advanced
    • Take 1-2 naps
    • Behavioral sleep problems start
normal sleep in kids1
Normal sleep in kids
  • School-age kids:
    • 9-11 hours sleep/24h
    • No nap
    • 90 minute NREM-REM cycle
    • Increase in slow wave sleep
    • More phase-delayed, towards puberty
when to use pedi scoring rules
When to use Pedi Scoring Rules
  • 2 months to 12 yrs – use pedi rules
  • 13 yrs to 17 – can use either adult or pedi rules
    • Better to use 3% desat if use adult rules

(C. Marcus, SLEEP v33, n10, 2010)

normal eeg in kids
Normal EEG in kids
  • ODR (“alpha”) present at birth
  • Spindles 2 to 3 mo
  • Delta waves 4 to 5 mo
  • K-complex 4 to 6 mo

By 6 mo, should be able to distinguish NREM from REM sleep with EEG.

occipital dominant rhythm odr
Occipital Dominant Rhythm (ODR)

- AKA: Dominant Posterior Rhythm (DPR)

- Their “alpha” rhythm

- Occipital leads during eyes closed

  • 3 mo = 3 Hz
  • 6 mo = 6 Hz
  • 3 yr = 8 Hz
development of eeg characteristics
Development of EEG Characteristics
  • Spindles 2 to 3 mo
  • Delta waves 4 to 5 mo
  • K-complex 4 to 6 mo
  • Infants:
  • May have to stage sleep as Quiet (N) vs. Active (R) sleep.
  • Use other parameters to help stage: eye movements, chin tone, RR, HR, etc.
things that look funny but really are quite normal
Things that look funny but really are quite normal…
  • Tracéalternans
  • Hypnagogic hypersynchrony
slide16

Trace Alternans

  • - NREM sleep
  • - Seen in full term newborns (until 3 mo)
slide17

Hypnagogic hypersynchrony

  • Synchronous, high voltage theta waves associated with sleep onset
  • Seen in infants and children
respiratory events
Respiratory Events
  • OA
    • 90% decreased flow
    • At least 2 missed breaths
  • OH
    • 50% decreased nasal pressure for at least 2 breaths
    • Associated with arousal or3% desaturation
respiratory events1
Respiratory events
  • RERA
    • Discernable fall or flattening of nasal pressure, but <50%
    • Snoring or increase in pCO2
    • Increased respiratory effort
    • At least 2 breaths
  • Central Apnea
    • Absence of respiratory effort for 2 breaths + arousalor3% desaturation
    • 20 sec or longer without arousal or desat
pedi diagnostic criteria for osa
Pedi Diagnostic Criteria for OSA
  • Mild AHI 1 to 5
  • Moderate AHI 5 to 15
  • Severe AHI >15

Only need 7 events during a 7 hour PSG to earn a diagnosis of Sleep-disordered breathing!!!

other respiratory considerations
Other respiratory considerations
  • Hypoventilation: >25% of TST with CO2 >50 mm Hg
  • Periodic breathing: >3 episodes of central apnea lasting >3 sec, separated by no more than 20 sec of normal breathing. (Physiologic in infants)
non invasive co 2
Non-invasive CO2
  • End Tidal CO2 (more common)
  • Transcutaneous CO2
periodic limb movements
Periodic Limb Movements
  • PLMS in kids are scored the same way as in adults.
  • Only need PLMAI ≥ 5 for diagnosis of PLMD.
  • Can support a diagnosis of RLS.
take home points
Take-Home Points
  • Kids need sleep studies for some of the reasons that adults do but also for some reasons specific to Pedatrics (hyperactivity/behavior problems, tonsillar hypertrophy, dysmorphic features).
  • EEG characteristics and sleep staging vary dramatically with age from birth to age 17. Pay attention to ODR and be able to recognize normal EEG patterns commonly seen in pedi patients.
  • Respiratory scoring in pediatrics: NOT the same as adults. Being meticulous is paramount because every event counts!
references
References
  • The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events, 2007.
  • Sheldon SH, Ferber R, Kryger MH. Principles and Practice of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, 2005.
  • C. Marcus, “Differences in Overnight PSG Scores using Adult and Pediatric Criteria for Respiratory Events in Adolescents”, SLEEP v33, n10, 2010.
  • http://naraamt.or.jp/Academic/kensyuukai/2005
  • Google images