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Confusion and Diffusion. Ref: William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003. Statistics and Plaintext. Suppose the frequency distribution of plaintext in a human-readable message in some language is known.

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confusion and diffusion

Confusion and Diffusion

Ref: William Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2003

Confusion and Diffusion

statistics and plaintext
Statistics and Plaintext
  • Suppose the frequency distribution of plaintext in a human-readable message in some language is known.
  • Or suppose there are known words or phrases that are used in the plaintext message.
  • A cryptanalysist can use this information to break a cryptographic algorithm.

Confusion and Diffusion

changing statistics
Changing Statistics
  • Claude Shannon suggested that to complicate statistical attacks, the cryptographer could dissipate the statistical structure of the plaintext in the long range statistics of the ciphertext.
  • Shannon called this process diffusion.

Confusion and Diffusion

changing statistics p 2
Changing Statistics (p.2)
  • Diffusion can be accomplished by having many plaintext characters affect each ciphertext character.
  • An example of diffusion is the encryption of a message M=m1,m2,... using a an averaging: yn= i=1,k mn+i(mod26).

Confusion and Diffusion

changing statistics p 3
Changing Statistics (p.3)
  • In binary block ciphers, such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), diffusion can be accomplished using permutations on data, and then applying a function to the permutation to produce ciphertext.

Confusion and Diffusion

complex use of a key
Complex Use of a Key
  • Diffusion complicates the statistics of the ciphertext, and makes it difficult to discover the key of the encryption process.
  • The process of confusion, makes the use of the key so complex, that even when an attacker knows the statistics, it is still difficult to deduce the key.

Confusion and Diffusion

complex use of a key p 2
Complex Use of a Key(p.2)
  • Confusion can be accomplished by using a complex substitution algorithm.
  • Block ciphers, such as the Data Encryption Standard, makes use of substitution operations.

Confusion and Diffusion