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Eating Right: For You & Your Baby. Did You Know?. Q: What is your baby’s main source of nutrients for growing? A: You! Essential nutrients come from: - What is stored in your tissues - What you eat. Are You Ready?.

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Eating Right: For You & Your Baby


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Eating Right: For You & Your Baby

    2. Did You Know? Q: What is your baby’s main source of nutrients for growing? A: You! Essential nutrients come from: - What is stored in your tissues - What you eat

    3. Are You Ready? In this section we will help you learn what to eat and what to avoid before getting pregnant

    4. Get Ready • Assess your current eating plan • Most women do not include enough: • folic acid • high-calcium foods • iron • fruits and vegetables

    5. Prevent Birth Defects A: 1 in every 1000 babies Q: How many babies are born in the US every year with a neural tube defect?

    6. Folate Helps Prevent Birth Defects • Folate is needed both before and in the first weeks of pregnancy • It can help reduce the risk of neural tube defects • 400 mcg per day before pregnancy • 600 mcg per day while pregnant

    7. Which Foods are the Best Source of Folate? • Chicken liver, fortified breakfast cereals, beans, asparagus, broccoli, green leafy vegetables, oranges and wheat germ

    8. Which Foods Are The Best Sources of Calcium? • Skim milk • Fat free ricotta cheese • Yogurt • Fortified soy milk • Calcium fortified orange juice • Sardines with bones

    9. Where’s the Iron? • Liver, meat, fortified breakfast cereal, spinach, beans

    10. Tips for More Fruits & Vegetables • Try to include fruits and or vegetables with every meal • Include fresh fruit with breakfast • Take bananas and apples with you for snacks • Eat a big salad for lunch • Eat vegetables at dinner • Make a fruit/yogurt smoothie for dessert

    11. Do I Need A Supplement? • Assess your current eating plan • Take supplements several months prior to conception if food intake for folic acid and iron is not optimal

    12. Exercise • Check with your physician • Begin before you are pregnant • Modify your program during the second and third trimesters • Benefits: • Improves your sense of well-being • Helps you control your weight • More timely onset of labor • Less difficulty with labor pain

    13. I’m Pregnant! Here’s what you need to know about eating when you are pregnant

    14. Healthy Pregnancy Eating Plan (HPEP) • 8 or more servings of complex carbohydrates • 4 or more servings of vegetables • 3 or more servings of fruits • 3 servings of dairy • 2-3 servings of extra-lean meat, poultry, fish and/or legumes

    15. 8 or More Servings of Complex Carbohydrates • 100 % whole wheat bread • Oatmeal and other whole grain cereals • Whole wheat noodles or pasta • Brown rice • Potatoes and sweet potatoes • Barley • Fortified grain products* *Rich in folic acid

    16. Asparagus* Bean Sprouts Green Beans Beets Broccoli* Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Chard* Eggplant Kale* Spinach* Tomato Turnip Greens* 4 or More Servings of Vegetables *Rich in folate

    17. Bananas Blueberries Cantaloupe* Grapefruit* Grapes Kiwi* Melon Oranges Papaya Peach Pineapple Strawberries* Watermelon 3 or More Servings of Fruit *Rich in folate

    18. 3 Servings of Nonfat Dairy • Skim milk • Yogurt • Lowfat cheese • Lowfat ricotta cheese These are the best sources of calcium

    19. 2 Servings of Lean Protein Foods • Beans and peas* • Lentils* • Lean chicken • Seafood • Tofu • Lean red meat *Rich in folate

    20. Seafood • Do not eat shark, swordfish, king mackerel, or tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury • Eat up to 12 ounces (two average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury • Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish • Another commonly eaten fish, albacore (“white”) tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna • So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to six ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week • Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers and coastal areas • If no advice is available, eat up to six ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don’t consume any other fish during that week

    21. Fluids • Needed for baby: • Building your baby’s body cells & circulatory system • Delivery of nutrients • Excretion of wastes

    22. Fluids • Needed for you: • Helps to combat constipation • Regulate body temperature • Reduces risk of urinary tract infections • Consume at least 8 cups of fluids per day (water, juice, decaffeinated beverages)

    23. Foods to Limit or Avoid • Alcohol • Caffeinated beverages • Candy • Cookies/cakes/pies/doughnuts • Drinks made with sugar or high-fructose corn syrup • Meats that are less than 95% fat-free • Chips and other snack foods high in fat and salt

    24. Avoid Drugs • Use of street drugs can affect fertility and have lifelong and serious consequences • Optimal nutrition might help, but it can not fully compensate for the harsh effect of drugs • Never self-medicate when you are pregnant • Always check with your physician

    25. Eat Frequently • Aim for 3 meals and 2 to 3 snacks • Eat every 2-3 hours or 5-6 times per day • Take food with you • Eating habits will change as pregnancy progresses • You may eat more or less depending on how you’re feeling each day!

    26. Calorie Needs • Calorie needs will vary per person • First trimester: • Average of 2000-2200 calories • Second & third trimester: • Increase by 300 calories • Average of 2,300-2,500 calories • Vitamin and mineral needs are high • Consume foods as close to their natural state as possible

    27. Weight Gain Expectations • Pregnancy is not the time to diet • Expect weight gain of 25-35 pounds* • Pattern of weight gain is important: • slow gain in the 1st trimester (2-4 pounds)* • 3/4 to 1 pound a week for the last 2 trimesters* *(for women in normal weight range)

    28. Fatigue Morning Sickness Constipation Varicose Veins Tooth and Gum Problems Leg Cramps Irritability Skin Problems Colds and Infections Mild Depression Nose Bleeds Mood Swings Side Effects That May Be Lessened by a Proper Diet

    29. First Trimester • Follow Healthy Pregnancy Eating Plan • Expect weight gain of 2-5 pounds • Discuss supplement needs with your physician or dietitian • Stop drinking alcohol, using tobacco, or taking drugs not approved by your physician • Discuss exercise regimen with physician, adjust if necessary

    30. Morning Sickness • Eat what and when you can but try to make it nutritious, if possible • Nibble on salt-free crackers and dry cereal • Eat frequently to avoid hunger • Avoid offensive cooking odors • Drink fluids • Consume beverages and soups between meals • Avoid coffee, tea, and spicy or acidic foods

    31. Nausea • Occurs often in the first trimester • Try to determine which foods will be appetizing and tolerable for you • Mashed potatoes, soups, pretzels, oatmeal, pudding, graham crackers, rice, or pasta may be soothing • Sips of soda water with lemon or ginger ale may be helpful for overcoming pangs of nausea

    32. Constipation • Consume ample fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes • Increase fluids, especially water • Daily exercise helps keep things moving • Try 1 tsp of wheat bran if fruits/veggies don’t help • Use laxatives only as a last resort and under medical supervision

    33. Fatigue • Take a nap, go to bed early if possible • Eat well, exercise, listen and respond to your body’s needs • Avoid sugary foods and caffeine, or other temporary “quick fixes” • Eat every few hours, always eat breakfast, drink plenty of fluids • If fatigue continues, talk with your physician about a blood test for iron

    34. Food Cravings • Common among pregnant women • Sweet, sour, salty, and spicy foods • Aversions may make it difficult for you to tolerate your favorite foods • Cravings may be based on an underlying nutritional need such as iron deficiency i.e. craving ice or dirt

    35. Crave-Control Tips • Eat frequently • Set aside a calorie allotment • Abstinence may lead to binge eating • Choose small servings of your favorite foods • Try to choose a healthful version of the craved food, e.g. smoothie instead of ice cream

    36. Avoid Food Poisoning • Clean: • Wash hands frequently • Keep all food surfaces very clean • Use paper towels instead of a sponge • Separate - don’t cross contaminate: • Wash hands and food surfaces after preparing raw meat, poultry, fish and eggs • Don’t store these raw ingredients over ones that will be served without cooking

    37. Avoid Food Poisoning • Chill: • Refrigerate leftovers promptly • Heat: • Heat or cook foods quickly and to the right temperature • Cook meat and poultry to the right temperature • Bring reheated foods to a boil before serving

    38. Second Trimester • Continue to follow HPEP • Increase calories by about 300 per day • Expect weight gain of ¾ - 1½ pounds a week for a total of 9 - 19 pounds • Exercise daily, but adjust the routine, intensity, or duration as needed

    39. Heartburn • Usually occurs in the 2nd trimester • Aggravated by large meals, foods that produce gas such as beans and cabbage, and fatty or spicy foods • Avoid discomfort by eating small, frequent meals, eat a light dinner at least 3 hours before bedtime, chew and eat slowly

    40. Heartburn • Decrease or limit problematic foods like: • coffee • chocolate • processed meats • rich pastries • fried foods • alcohol • carbonated beverages • Avoid lying down after eating a large meal

    41. Third Trimester • Follow HPEP (don’t forget your additional 300 calories) • Expect weight gain of .7 to 1.4 pounds a week for a total of 9 to 19 pounds • Continue taking a supplement if necessary • Exercise daily • Rest!

    42. What Makes Up Weight Gain? • Maternal stores: 7 pounds • Tissue fluid: 5-6 pounds • Maternal tissue: 3-4 pounds • Baby/fluid/placenta: 10-11 pounds

    43. Gestational Diabetes • Diabetes that exists only during pregnancy • Resolves itself after delivery • Arises after 20 weeks of gestation • May affect as many as 5-10% of all pregnancies • Symptoms: increased urination, increased thirst, high blood glucose

    44. Gestational Diabetes • It is treated largely through diet changes and moderate exercise to achieve weight control • Gestational diabetes can be controlled, thus resulting in a healthful pregnancy

    45. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension • Usually develops in the third trimester • Affects about 7-8% of pregnant women • Diagnosis: • Systolic blood pressure of 140 or a diastolic pressure of 90, or both • A rise of 20-30 in systolic pressure or 10-15 in diastolic pressure, or both, on two or more occasions 6 hours apart

    46. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension • Cause is unknown • Development is associated with lack of prenatal care and poor nutritional status • Incidence is higher in those with low calcium intake • Limit your physical activity, continue to eat well, and rest frequently

    47. After the Birth Here are some tips to help you with breastfeeding after you have your baby

    48. Breast is Best • Nutritionally superior to any alternative • The least allergenic of any infant food • Promotes good jaw development • Costs less than commercial formulas • Promotes close mother-child contact & bonding • Always safe and fresh • Helps prevent infections • Better weight management and reduced risk of cancer for mom

    49. Breast is Best • Comes with a heartbeat just like baby is used to hearing in the womb • The milk is just the right temperature • The breast refills automatically • It’s unbreakable and can't be dropped • The milk is ready when baby is • These nipples that don't need sterilizing and come with a lifetime guarantee of durability

    50. Eating Tips for Breastfeeding • Continue healthy pregnancy eating plan, but increase calories by about 500 per day • This will increase your protein, fat, and vitamin and mineral requirement to the appropriate level • Eat and drink enough to satisfy your hunger and thirst