African American and women’s rights in the republic • How were women and African Americans treated during this period? • Both groups were essentially given a mixed message. • In the Northern areas Slaves were seen as less of a necessity. While the south did not agree. • Women tried to make strides during this time with only mild success • The major decision makers Adams and Jefferson both believed that now was not the time for women to become political.
quiz • Compare the Virginia and New Jersey, what problem are they trying to solve, how are the different. • George Washington was _______ to the position of President. • What is the difference between a Federalist and anti Federalist, who are the key figures of each group. • Hamilton proposed ______ to manage the U.S. economy and debt.
Quiz 1. What is the difference between a Federalist and anti Federalist, who are the key figures of each group. 2. Why was the bill of rights important in the ratification of the constitution 3.Hamilton proposed ______ to manage the U.S. economy and debt. 4.Compare the Virginia and New Jersey, what problem are they trying to solve, how are the different.
Warm-up Study your chapter 6 and 7 notes.
Chapter 6 The American Republic Or Where do we go from here?
The Republic • At the time most knowledge of a republic was based on Rome and Greece. • If these great Republics failed what is the chance for America • The hope is to keep a government without a monarch or aristocracy. • To preserve this nation people like John Adams believed “A republic demanded an exceptionality, and a high degree of public morality”
Early state constitutions The second Continental Congress invited the states to create their own constitution. Some of these constitutions were experimental. While others were based around rewrites of early rewrites. Newly independent Americans demanded their rights be written.
Natural Rights Authors of these early constitutions pushed that men and women had natural rights. Government had no control over these whatsoever. Protected speech religion and press. Protected against unlawful search and seizures Upheld trial by jury.
State constitutions The constitutions continued to limit government. The legislature dominates early state government. Pennsylvania and Georgia provided one house legislators. Other constitutions pushed for bicameral houses.
The Massachusetts constitution The state of Massachusetts did not pass two constitutions placing John Adams in charge of a committee. The decided framework and a house and senate, a popularly elected governor who possessed the right to veto.
Two Drafts of the Articles • Draft 1: Was put together by who and when? • John Dickson during 1776 during the war • What kind of laws were In the first draft? • Strong central government • Equal state representation, not based on population • Taxes paid based on state population. Placed the western states under control of the government.
Second draft of Articles • How similar are the first and final draft of the Articles of Confederation? • Very different • Guarded sovereignty of states • Stripped power from government • Government could get funds by asking for state contributions • Government handled foreign affairs • The delegates to the congress were picked by annual elections
Why the second draft Much of the second draft was based around the idea of power of the public that came from the idea of a republic. That too big of a government was bad.
Moving West • With the defeat of the British there is now un tapped land possibilities for the U.S. • The track of land is modern day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky. • Debate starts over what to do with the land when Virginia claims ownership to the territory. • The other states claimed that the land was for all. • Virginia would secede its interest leaving the land under government control • Government was afraid to expand to much do to transportation issues
North West Ordinance Continued • For congress it seemed that selling the land off was a good way to make money to the ailing economy. • The land was sold to Cutler who was unable to successfully take advantage of the land. Congress generally viewed the group of settlers as uncivilized • The North West Ordinance:
North West Ordinance • More people begin to move out and become squatters causing violence at times. • Jefferson considered ten states be molded out of the area. When it grew large enough it would be given statehood and citizens could vote
North West Ordinance continued • Congress decided that they had to something with the lawlessness of the West. • The North west ordinance was passed. It provided structure to the new territory. • Created three to five territories controlled by a governor, judges, and secretary appointed by congress. • Contained certain measures a bill of rights, freedom of religion, due process law , outlaws slavery.
Budget issues continued • As average citizens find themselves in debt the states are also asked to pay off their debts. • States were not only able to pay their debts but the government had inflated the economy.
Hamilton and the Nationalists • People like Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris and James Madison begin to push for changes in the constitution. • They began to look at the idea of allowing congress to collect a five percent sales tax on imported goods. A group known as the Localists challenged Hamilton’s group. Favoring states rights. • Nationalists generally saw their opponents as economically naïve.
The constitution problemsEnforcing the Peace treaty A powerful Federal government could have pushed the British army out of the North west territories The reality of this the articles of confederation was that an army could not be raised to handle this issue. So the British are left in U.S. territory
Problems with the ArticlesForeign tension with the Spanish The Spanish claimed to have control of the land between Mississippi and Georgia ever since the treaty of Paris. The Spanish decided to close off the Mississippi river an important hub to the southern colonists.
Problems with the ArticlesForeign tension with the Spanish John Jay was sent to negotiate with the Spanish. He worked out a treaty that avoided the southern territory. The southern states angers by this in congress scrapped the treaty made by Jay.
Madison and the constitution • Madison along with many other nationalists were under the belief that portions of the Articles needed to be overhauled. • After a poor turn out at the first exploration committee Madison was able to get another convention approved in Philadelphia
Shay is mad and he is not going to take it anymore • Shortly after scheduling the Philadelphia convention a rebellion started in western Massachusetts • Lead by a war veteran Daniel Shays a group of indebted planters. • As the peril grows the government does not have enough money to raise an army. • Wealthy Bostonian were able to calm the insurrection
Virginia plan The Virginia Plan (also known as the Randolph Plan (Edmond Randlaph , after its sponsor, or the Large-State Plan) was a proposal by Virginia delegates for a bicameral legislative branch. The plan was drafted by James Madison at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Virginia plan continued In addition to dealing with legislative representation the Virginia Plan addressed: It called for a national government of three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Members of one of the two legislative chambers would be elected by the people; members of that chamber would then elect the second chamber from nominations submitted by state legislatures. The executive would be chosen by the legislative branch. (This second part didn’t make it through)
New Jersey plan The New Jersey Plan (also widely known as the Small State Plan or the Paterson Plan(William Patterson ) It was created in response to the Virginia Plan The less populous states were adamantly opposed to giving most of the control of the national government to the more populous states, and so proposed an alternative plan that would have kept the one-vote-per-state representation under one legislative body from the Articles of Confederation.
What was decided Benjamin Franklin at age 81was put in charge of making a decision for the two debating sides. Madison and Wilson were left of the discussion. The upper hose of Congress should have equal representation. The lower house would proportionate. Southerners also refused to accept the compromise unless slaves were considered in the proportiante representation.
3/5 compromise The northern and southern delegates fought over the representation of slaves. In the end it was deiced that slave vote would worth 3/5 of a white person vote. There was also a clause passed about collecting fugitive slaves.
Federalist V.S. Anti Federalist Federalist Anti-Federalist Proponents against a constitution At least want a bill of rights in the constitution Protection for the common man Usually people from less urban areas. Constant vigilance against the abuse of authority. Fight for the commonwealth of a citizen • Proponents for the constitution. • Envision a strong central government • Usually from more urban environments, as well as being well educated, and wealthy. • Cover the debt through taxation
A Bill of Rights • The first ten amendments of the constitution. • Considered to be the legacy of the Anti- Federalists
Warm-up You have ten minutes to study for your test. Use this time wisely so you can have it for every test for the rest of the year.
Essay and post test work Essay question 4:Name the two leaders of the radical republican, and explain their three goals for the country during reconstruction. AFTER YOUR TEST MAKE SURE YOU DO THE FOLLOWG: Open a book to chapter 11 section 3 pg. 398 Define the key words and answer the rest of the main idea question as well as question one of critical thinking.