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MODULE 1B – Land Use. Jirina Bergatt Jackson.

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module 1b land use

MODULE 1B – Land Use

Jirina Bergatt Jackson

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

presentation content
Presentation content

Achieving effective land use solutions

Barriers to effective and sustainable land use

Failure of traditional regulative systems

New solutions

What is to be done on a national, regional nad local levels

Qualitative urbanised land use data

New approaches and new tools

achieving effective land use solutions
Achieving effective land use solutions
  • Effective and sustainable land use forms aid social stability, mitigate environmental consequences and improve competitiveness.
  • Sustainable land use management requires a wide political and public support and should become one of the national, regional and local priorities.
  • Without such an approach, land use sustainability may be „nibbled“, but not really addressed and funds and efforts directed into it may be wasted.
urban growth shrinkage
Urban Growth & Shrinkage
  • Since the mid 1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78 %, whereas the population has grown only by 33 %.

= OUTCOME:

  • urban sustainability and economic land use effectiveness were therefore reduced.

Source: www.plurer.net

symptoms
Symptoms
  • Number of regions are confronted with massive urban sprawl, the current economic crisis and the effects of the demographic change are causing unfavourable land use patterns.
  • Dispersed land use patterns with their high demands on land, soil and energy accelerate the process and the impacts of climate change.
  • Uneconomic, ineffective and unsustainable land use patters then have an effect on our national competitiveness.
  • Carrying on with our land use as we do it up today is neither competitive nor sustainable.
causes c z experience
Causes (CZ experience)
  • Increasing of built up areas is a synonym for local growth.
  • Nobody is identifying and evaluating the inner development potential within urbanized areas.
  • Land use decision are vested in local politics.
  • Regional influence is limited by legal frameworks and subsidarity principles.
  • Political support for sustainable land use on regional level is low.
  • Sectoral policy support for sustainable land use is rare.
  • Political support for sustainable land use on national level is minimal.
what can be gained by more effective land use forms
What can be gained by more effective land use forms

10 – 15 %

  • of the energy use costs + costs of increased development externalities + value of the lost environmental services, +………
uncoordinated data and missing goals
Uncoordinated data and missing goals
  • To evaluate the land use sustainability may not be easy.
  • In the CZ were in 2010 carried our two independent surveys on the land use changes and their data on demise of the agricultural and natural land have showed 50% difference (15 – 10ha/day)
  • In the case that the 15ha is correct, in terms of CZ population adjustment, CZ is reaching ¾ of the day land take occurring in Germany
  • CZ has a National Spatial Policy (PUR) and a system of regional plans (ZURs). All these document stress land use effectives and sustainability. But neither of them names any concrete goals, to which the land use management in the CZ should stride.
  • There also are no suitable indicators, which could help to monitor land use trends set in any of these documents.
outcome land use effectives in cz
Outcome - land use effectives in CZ

SINCE THE YEAR 1930 THE CZECH POPULATION HAD A DECREASING TREND,BUT THE SIZE OF BUILT UP AREAS HAVE NEARLY DOUBLED

IS THIS DUE TO INCREASING SPATIAL STANDARDS OR IS IT DUE TOBAD LAND USE MANAGEMENT?

Source: M.Říha article, Anarchie urbanismu v české krajině, 2001

land loss to development eea figures
Land loss to development – EEA figures

http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/land-cover-country-analyses

Land use CR (% of total)

Artifitial areas (ha/year,% base 1990)

Artificial areas 2006

2006

http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/land-cover-country-analyses,

data interpretation pages 1.1,3.8, 3.9

failure of traditional regulative systems
Failure of traditional regulativesystems
  • Traditional regulative approaches of spatial planning failed to deliver land use sustainability and therefore new integrated land management approaches and policy mixes are needed, to address the stakeholders varied interests in land more comprehensively.
  • New governance approaches are also needed, which can reach above the local authorities´ jurisdiction and can protect specific public interest in land from a broader regional level.
  • In the past 5-7 years, a search for an optimum solutions resulted in preparation of new national/regional policies, targets and programs, which were supported by collective efforts of many consultants and research teams.
  • But the actual outcome of these new policies and programs in the Central Europe so far, has not yet delivered the desired goals and targets. See for an example the German REFFINA research program.
circuse solution circular land use management
CircUse Solution – Circular land usemanagement
  • Circular land use management represents an integrative policy and governance approach, which presupposes a changed land use philosophy with regard to land utilization.
  • This modified land use philosophy can be expressed with the slogan:

“avoid – recycle –compensate“

      • Similar approach as to recycling of othervaluable resources (paper, metal, glass est.) is applied.

www.circuse.eu

slide14

Project CircUse shift

Integrated regeneration

Land use management

Soil enviromental issues

Brownfields

circuse process

Reintroduction

Planning

Economic aspects

c.

a.

Interim Use

Socialaspects

Ecologicalaspects

Abandonment

b.

Use

Cessation of use

CircUse Process
  • The CircUse process is visualized in this figure, showing land use as a cycle with three major phases:

a) Zoning new “greenfields”

b) Rejection of land not suitable for subsequent use

c) Activating land potentials

    • brownfields, empty buildings
    • gaps between buildings and vacant land
    • urban renewal and redevelopment sites
    • sites undergoing planning
  • The end and the beginning of each phase are crucial decision points.

Mix of instruments

Legal, planning and economic instruments

+

Cooperative governance approaches

Source: German Institute of Urban Affairs (Defy 2005).

project circuse strategy
Project CircUse Strategy
  • Integration of all relevant stakeholders interests and considerations of their specific incentives and reaction patterns
  • Combination of incentives and adequate instruments for steering the supply and demand of land markets,
  • Combination of decentralized and central steering instruments
  • Considerations of city and/or region specific interdependencies
  • Setting up an effective land use management formats
what we need to do on a national level
What we need to do on a national level
  • Political support for sustainable land use
  • Clear policy qualitative of quantitative goals, where the land use in general and the urbanized land use in particular should aim too.
  • Integrated policy and regulative framework which supports sustainable land use management principles (planning, environmental fiscal laws, est.)
  • Public awareness campaign in support of sustainable land use practices.
what we need to do on a regional level
What we need to do on a regional level
  • Gain political support for sustainable land use
  • Protect public interests in land from the regional level
  • Regions haveto be empowered to monitor the land use in the region and be able to demand urbanized land use qualitative data from local communities
  • Regional/national standards and training for local communities has to be prepared, indicating how to collect the qualitative data concerning the urbanized land use
  • Program help should be offered for communities (finance, consultants est.) which would help them to perform the quantitative urban land use data reporting.
and a local level
And a local level ?
  • Local authorities (LA) are in the strongest position to promote sustainable land uses, as it is a level, where majority of the land use decisions take place. But it is not all easy for them:
    • Legal framework is in hands of parliament
    • Various support programs are in hands of governmental agencies of, regions of ministries
    • Finances are in hands of private and national financing institutions
    • Land is in hands of private owners

BUT LA POSES A LARGE LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR PLANNING POWERS

what is to be done on a local level
What is to be done on a local level
  • On a local level, land use needs to be more distanced from local politics.
  • LA understanding of their urbanized land use effectiveness has to be improved.
  • In the CZ as yet none of the LA monitor:
    • Yearly development increment
    • Volume of their yearly brownfield uptake
    • Inner development potential of the urbanised areas
    • Volume of available surrounding Greenfield development, which may compete with the LA inner development activities
  • Because of the local land use falls within the local jurisdiction, in the CZ there was so far no requirement for LA qualitative urban land use data reporting.

LA NEED PARTNERSHIP SUPPORT, ESPECIALLY FROM THE REGIONAL LEVEL

yearly development increment
Yearly development increment
  • This is amount of development, which occurred in a community during one year. To avoid influences of large projects entering into the calculation, it is recommended that a 3 year average figure is used.
  • This figure helps to indicate:
    • a timing horizon for available developable land (brownfields, Greenfields est.),
    • how fast local brownfields can be regenerated, if all the development was channelled on them,
    • monitoring these figures also gives information of the local market trends.
volume of brownfield yearly uptake
Volume of brownfield yearly uptake

This is a figure, which indicates, how much brownfields (ha, m2) in a community was regenerated during one year. Again a 3 year average figure is recommended.

This figure, when compared to total amount of brownfields in a community, indicates how serious the local brownfield situation is (some towns may find that they have a time span of 200 and more years!!!)

urbanized area inner development potential
Urbanized area inner development potential
  • The urbanised area inner development potential is a sum of all the developable and reusable land, which can be found within the built up area (brownfields, empty buildings, gaps, vacant land, urbanized land delimitated by planning for increase/decrease of use, land within the urbanised area delimitated by planning for future development).
  • When this inner development potential is identified in a survery, on a further examination it is usually found, that a majority of it is actually for various reasons not readily available for new development activities.
  • Therefore, a community action needs to be focused onto improving the availability of this inner development potential for development. This means pro-activity toward the owners and pro-activity in the development and planning processes.
  • Simultaneously to such a local focus a broader regional focus has to take place. This helps to focus the regional stakeholders interest onto a more effective land use.
new approaches and new tools
New approaches and new tools
  • To address land use management issues, new approaches and new tools are needed. Some of these tools were already prepared by various projects.
  • The tools, which the project CircUse offers on the www.circuse.euare:
    • CircUse Integrated Strategy of Circular Land Use Management
    • Educational module focused on city and regional stakeholders
    • Educational module focused on secondary school children
    • Action plans supporting implementation of strategy
    • Inventory databases of land suitable for development
    • Circular land use management maps
    • Institutional models for land use management governance
    • Pilot projects
conclusions improving land use effectives
Conclusions - improving land use effectives
  • Land use efficiency and sustainability is so far not addressees effectively from the national, regional and local levels, where the old believe prevails that the planning regulation „does it all“.
  • To address land use (including the brownfields) effectively, a large amount of new know-how is needed to be directed to all levels and to all stakeholders. This know-how needs to be up to date, reflecting countries systems and local level of practice.
  • Data, analyses and concrete targets are needed to evaluate, steer and lead the issue on local, regional and national scale.
  • New governance approaches, broad partnerships and stakeholders involvement,which can reach above the local jurisdiction are needed.
  • New tools have to be considered and used.
slide26

Thank you for your attention

http://browntrans.vsb.cz

„This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.“