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G5AI AI Introduction to AI. Combinatorial Explosion. Graham Kendall. Graham Kendall GXK@CS.NOTT.AC.UK www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gxk +44 (0) 115 846 6514. The Travelling Salesman Problem. A salesperson has to visit a number of cities (S)He can start at any city and must finish at that same city

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## G5AI AI Introduction to AI

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**G5AIAIIntroduction to AI**Combinatorial Explosion Graham Kendall Graham Kendall GXK@CS.NOTT.AC.UK www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~gxk +44 (0) 115 846 6514**The Travelling Salesman Problem**• A salesperson has to visit a number of cities • (S)He can start at any city and must finish at that same city • The salesperson must visit each city only once • The number of possible routes is (n!)/2 (where n is the number of cities)**Combinatorial Explosion**A 10 city TSP has 181,000 possible solutions A 20 city TSP has 10,000,000,000,000,000 possible solutions A 50 City TSP has 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 possible solutions There are 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 litres of water on the planet Mchalewicz, Z, Evolutionary Algorithms for Constrained Optimization Problems, CEC 2000 (Tutorial)**Combinatorial Explosion - Towers of Hanoi**• How many moves does it take to move four rings? • You might like to try writing a towers of hanoi program (and you may well have to in one of your courses!)**Combinatorial Explosion - Towers of Hanoi**• If you are interested in an algorithm here is a very simple one • Assume the pegs are arranged in a circle • 1. Do the following until 1.2 cannot be done • 1.1 Move the smallest ring to the peg residing next to it, in clockwise order • 1.2 Make the only legal move that does not involve the smallest ring • 2. Stop • P. Buneman and L.Levy (1980). The Towers of Hanoi Problem, Information Processing Letters, 10, 243-4**Combinatorial Explosion - Towers of Hanoi**• A time analysis of the problem shows that the lower bound for the number of moves is 2N-1 • Since N appears as the exponent we have an exponential function**Combinatorial Explosion - Towers of Hanoi**• The original problem was stated that a group of tibetan monks had to move 64 gold rings which were placed on diamond pegs. • When they finished this task the world would end. • Assume they could move one ring every second (or more realistically every five seconds). • How long till the end of the world?**Combinatorial Explosion - Towers of Hanoi**• > 500,000 years!!!!! Or 3 Trillion years • Using a computer we could do many more moves than one a second so go and try implementing the 64 rings towers of hanoi problem. • If you are still alive at the end, try 1,000 rings!!!!**Combinatorial Explosion - Optimization**• Optimize f(x1, x2,…, x100) • where f is complex and xi is 0 or 1 • The size of the search space is 2100 1030 • An exhaustive search is not an option • At 1000 evaluations per second • Start the algorithm at the time the universe was created • As of now we would have considered 1% of all possible solutions**Microseconds since Big Bang**Microseconds in a Day Combinatorial Explosion**10**20 50 100 200 1/10,000 second 1/2500 second 1/400 second 1/100 second 1/25 second N2 1/10 second 3.2 seconds 5.2 minutes 2.8 hours 3.7 days N5 1 second 35.7 years > 400 trillion centuries 45 digit no. of centuries 1/1000 second 2N 185 digit no. of centuries 445 digit no. of centuries 2.8 hours 3.3 trillion years 70 digit no. of centuries NN Combinatorial Explosion Running on a computer capable of 1 million instructions/second Ref : Harel, D. 2000. Computer Ltd. : What they really can’t do, Oxford University Press**G5AIAIIntroduction to AI**End Combinatorial Explosion Graham Kendall

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