Chapter 12: Changes in water quantity and quality can affect living things Section 12.1: Freshwater environments By Tali, Julianna, and Myrrandha
Scientists classify bodies of freshwter by how fast they move • Rivers/Streams=Fast • Lakes=Slow • Swamps=Unmoving • Stagnant • Plants + animals are found in all of these examples but depend on: • How deep • How far down sunlight reaches • Nutrients • Speed of water • Oxygen level
Salmon tend to live in the ocean, but they lay their eggs in fresh water (mainly rivers) • Some fish can need only freshwater, or saltwater, or even a mixture of both. • Some fish can adapt to either form of freshwater, from lakes to swamps to rivers. (Example: Three Spine Stickleback Fish)
An estuary is an area of land that builds up where a river (or body of freshwater) meets the ocean • Nutrients come from both the river, and ocean • This makes estuaries ideal for many plants and animals • These nutrients get distributed throughout by tides, currents, and winds.
The action of the tides also flushes out pollutants and debris out and away from the estuary • The water in an estuary is called “brackish” • A mix of freshwater and saltwater
In British Columbia, estuaries only make up 3% of the coastlines, but are useed by over 80% of wildlife found on the coast • Estuaries offer a unique habitat for plants, and animals
Citations • http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://room19vv.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/.pond/estuaries.jpg.w300h225.jpg&imgrefurl=http://room19vv.tripod.com/id12.html&usg=__iOWZQzIncgfjdfJg3jVGDfojfvk=&h=225&w=300&sz=17&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=6ulafmRYdMOhDM:&tbnh=138&tbnw=196&ei=siHrTde_MebPiAKYhKXiCA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Destuaries%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1066%26bih%3D777%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=543&page=1&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&tx=101&ty=37&biw=1066&bih=777 • http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.glogster.com/media/2/3/1/10/3011027.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.glogster.com/glog.php%3Fglog_id%3D1268384%26scale%3D54%26isprofile%3Dtrue&usg=__EVv7lo0HcYVuHeJZHTsJAYyvXHk=&h=340&w=400&sz=55&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=9n0lXIIQ7QW9NM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=200&ei=siHrTde_MebPiAKYhKXiCA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Destuaries%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1066%26bih%3D777%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=144&vpy=266&dur=80&hovh=207&hovw=244&tx=83&ty=122&page=1&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:0&biw=1066&bih=777 • http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Gasterosteus_aculeatus.jpg&imgrefurl=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gasterosteus_aculeatus.jpg&usg=___iPHRDAKPPciivMZT3GlePcjvSY=&h=254&w=400&sz=18&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=hbhUTmthcV3KyM:&tbnh=124&tbnw=195&ei=MyLrTbLjJ4PKiAKx1oXhCA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dthree%2Bspined%2Bstickleback%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1066%26bih%3D777%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=124&vpy=99&dur=635&hovh=179&hovw=282&tx=178&ty=76&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&biw=1066&bih=777 • http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://nature.ca/explore/di-ef/images/33a_eggs_5876466.jpg&imgrefurl=http://nature.ca/explore/di-ef/wstr_pyb_e.cfm&usg=__OdJfqNXMsVwfzqquwx5KQs3_m94=&h=284&w=450&sz=42&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=XnctZFAPAVwjQM:&tbnh=154&tbnw=235&ei=ayLrTZe5LtLWiALc_LXiCA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsalmon%2Beggs%2Bin%2Briver%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1066%26bih%3D777%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=518&vpy=103&dur=763&hovh=178&hovw=283&tx=195&ty=61&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&biw=1066&bih=777 • http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.kidsgeo.com/images/swamp.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0150-swamps-and-marshes.php&usg=__etFd72hwKdTMQknEboBIuFEJkgQ=&h=300&w=400&sz=27&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=m1NNi0Ub-21prM:&tbnh=122&tbnw=163&ei=EyPrTe34EObViALx9s3hCA&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dswamps%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1066%26bih%3D741%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=294&vpy=114&dur=1463&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=138&ty=103&page=1&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&biw=1066&bih=741
Rivers and Streams are: • Home to many different organisms • Fast moving water • Usually leads into a bigger body of water (e.g. oceans&lakes)
Examples of living things in streams and rivers • Weed • Algae • Mosses • Pike • Catfish • Trout • Salmon (some may not reside but come back seasonally or yearly to spawn)
Scientists&Rivers • Scientists examine the river waters to monitor the wildlife living in or around the area. • Examine the wildlife spieces, population, and availibility&water quality and quanitity. • For example… • Large decrease in salmon pop. = scientists look for problem in water • Discover water is too heated in one area of river • Fix problem (water cooler) = Salmon saved!
Wetlands nearby: • ¼ all wetlands = in Canada • Spawn land of freshfish in BC. • 90% were torn in BC
Contribution to Environment • Filters water (takes out pollutants) • Holds water= prevents flooding • Home to wildlife (e.g. geese) • Visiting spot of endangered species • Rooted plants keep shorelines stable
LIFE IN LAKES AND PONDS pg.441
The life in a lake or pond can be found near the shores, where the water is shallow and there are many nutrients for the plants and animals. • There a two types of Plankton. One being ‘Phytoplankton’ which is a plant and the second one being ‘Zooplankton’ which is an animal. • Phytoplankton= Provide food for everything. Insects to fish. • Zooplankton= Tiny animals that eat other plankton for food. • zooplankton phytoplankton
Lakes and Ponds are home to amphibians, larger fish and salamanders. Mammals and birds. • These bodies of fresh water also benefit the environment in many ways. -Providing a habitat for a great variety of plants and animals -Supporting rooted plants, which clean the water through natural processes.
Picture credits to • Clipart • Bcscience8.com