Abnormal Psychology. Dr. David M. McCord Personality Disorders. DSM-IV Classification Categories Disorders Usually First Evident in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders Substance-Related Disorders
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Abnormal Psychology Dr. David M. McCord Personality Disorders
DSM-IV Classification Categories • Disorders Usually First Evident in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence • Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders • Substance-Related Disorders • Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders • Mood Disorders • Anxiety Disorders • Somatoform Disorders • Dissociative Disorders • Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders • Sleep Disorders • Eating Disorders • Factitious Disorders • Adjustment Disorders • Impulse Control Disorders • Personality Disorders
Personality… Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself…exhibited in a wide variety of important social and personal contexts. -- DSM-IV
The “Big Five” Personality Factors • E – Extraversion, Energy, Enthusiasm • Social vs retiring, fun-loving vs sober • A – Agreeableness, Altruism, Affection • Trusting vs suspicious, helpful vs uncooperative • C – Conscientiousness, Control, Constraint • Organized vs disorganized, careful vs careless • N – Neuroticism, Nervousness, Negative affectivity • Calm vs anxious, secure vs insecure • O – Openness, Originality, Open-mindedness • Imaginative vs practical, indepdendent vs conforming
When traits become inflexible, maladaptive, and cause significant functional impairment or subjective distress, they make up personality disorders.
Recognized by adolescence or earlier, continue through most of adult life • Behaviors must be characteristic of person’s recent past (past year) and long-term functioning • Constellation of behaviors or traits causes either significant functional impairment or subjective distress • Traits may be ego-syntonic or ego-dystonic • Usually not hospitalized • May co-exist with an Axis I disorder or with another (Axis II) personality disorder
Chronic • Lifelong pattern that doesn’t vary much, characterized by rigidity, decrease in adaptive behaviors, and an overutilization of one set or type of responses to external situations • Not neurotic or psychotic • Anxiety is not a major etiological component. No major distortion of reality (hallucinations, delusions). Is able to function in social, professional, interpersonal spheres to some degree. • But not “normal” – something is wrong.
PersonalityDisorders • Cluster A – odd, eccentric • Paranoid Personality Disorder • Schizoid Personality Disorder • Schizotypal Personality Disorder • Cluster B – dramatic, emotional, erratic • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Borderline Personality Disorder • Histrionic Personality Disorder • Narcissistic Personality Disorder • Cluster C – anxious, fearful • Avoidant Personality Disorder • Dependent Personality Disorder • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder • (Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder – DSM-III-R)
PersonalityDisorders • Cluster A – odd, eccentric • Paranoid Personality Disorder • Tendency to interpret the actions of others as deliberately demeaning or threatening • Schizoid Personality Disorder • Pattern of indifference to social relationships, restricted range of emotional experience and expression • Schizotypal Personality Disorder • Pattern of peculiarities of ideation, appearance, and behavior, deficits in interpersonal relatedness
PersonalityDisorders • Cluster C – anxious, fearful • Avoidant Personality Disorder • Pattern of social discomfort, fear of negative evaluation, timidity • Dependent Personality Disorder • Pattern of dependent and submissive behavior • Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder • Pattern of perfectionism and inflexibility • ------------------------------------------------------------ • (Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder – DSM-III-R) • Pattern of passive resistance to the demands of adequate social and occupational functioning
PersonalityDisorders • Cluster B – dramatic, emotional, erratic • Antisocial Personality Disorder • Pattern of irresponsible and antisocial behavior • Borderline Personality Disorder • Pattern of instability of self-image, interpersonal relationships, and mood • Histrionic Personality Disorder • Pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking • Narcissistic Personality Disorder • Pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), hypersensitivity to the evaluation of others, and lack of empathy
Impulse Control Disorders • Intermittent Explosive Disorder • Discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses resulting in serious assaults or destruction of property • Kleptomania • Recurrent failure to resist impulses to steal objects not needed for personal use or monetary value • Pyromania • Pattern of fire-setting for pleasure, gratification, or relief of tension
Impulse Control Disorders • Pathological Gambling • Recurrent and persistent maladaptive gambling behavior • Trichotillomania • Recurrent pulling out of one’s hair for pleasure, gratification, or relief of tension that results in noticeable hair loss