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THE ASSYRIAN (700-612 BCE) AND PERSIAN (559-360 BCE) EMPIRES PowerPoint Presentation
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THE ASSYRIAN (700-612 BCE) AND PERSIAN (559-360 BCE) EMPIRES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Assyrian warship. THE ASSYRIAN (700-612 BCE) AND PERSIAN (559-360 BCE) EMPIRES. Assyrian King Ashurbanipal Hunting Lions. ASSYRIA (700-612 BCE). Semitic-speaking people Used iron weapons to establish an empire. Modern reproduction of Assyrian sword and shield. GOVERNMENT.

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assyria 700 612 bce
ASSYRIA (700-612 BCE)
  • Semitic-speaking people
  • Used iron weapons to establish an empire

Modern reproduction of Assyrian sword and shield

government
GOVERNMENT
  • Ruled by kings with absolute power
  • Well-organized
  • Officials developed an efficient communication system
  • Sargon II was the most important leader

Assyrian winged bull from Sargon’s palace

accomplishments
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
  • Created one of the world’s finest libraries at Nineveh: Ashurbanipal
  • Established Aramaic as official language
  • Effective military
    • Assyrians had the first large armies equipped with iron weapons
    • Used guerilla warfare, various siege tactics, and terror

Infantry

Assyrian battering ram

fall of the assyrian empire
FALL OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE
  • The Chaldeans and Medes (people who lived in the east) joined together to conquer the Assyrians
    • The fall of Nineveh preceded the fall of the Assyrian Empire
    • They divided the empire

Tablet detailing the destruction of Nineveh

between the empires
BETWEEN THE EMPIRES
  • Nebuchadnezzar
    • Chaldean King
    • Made Babylonia the strongest city in western Asia
    • Famous hanging gardens
    • Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BC
      • This marked the end of the Mesopotamian empires
      • Persians adopted Assyrian military, political and artistic inventions

Nebuchadnezzar faces off against King Zedekiah, the last king of Judah

persia 559 bce 360 bce
PERSIA (559 BCE- 360 BCE)
  • Persians
    • Indo-Europeans who lived in modern Iran
    • Mostly nomadic
      • Eventually united by one family (Achaemenids)
    • Contemporaries of Greeks
  • Persian Empire was massive and grew larger than the prior Mesopotamian empires
    • Established durable political and cultural traditions
    • Fertile farmland and thriving trade
cyrus the great 559 bc
CYRUS THE GREAT – 559 BC
  • Created a powerful state through warfare
  • Indus River to Anatolia
  • Demonstrated wisdom, compassion, and mercy
  • Had a genuine respect for other cultures and practiced tolerance of local customs
    • Respected temples
    • Jews returned to Jerusalem
darius 521 bce
DARIUS – 521 BCE
  • Bodyguard for Cambyses (son of Cyrus) and one of the Ten Thousand Immortals
  • Conqueror
    • Added part of India to Persian Empire
    • Conquered Thrace (in Europe)
    • Invaded Greek mainland
      • Halted at the Battle of Marathon
    • Created world’s largest empire at that time
slide11

Government

    • Strengthened
    • Divided empire into 20 ethnic provinces
      • Satraps: Governor
      • Homelands
    • Created efficient communication system
    • Like the Assyrians, Darius had a secret spy force – “King’s Eyes and Ears”
    • The King had the power of life and death
slide12

Military

    • Empire’s power depended upon the military
    • Included standing army of professional soldiers
      • cavalry and infantry
      • Effective road system
xerxes
XERXES
  • Son of Darius
  • Stopped rebellion in Egypt and attacked Greece
    • Greece
      • Battle of Thermopylae (Against 300 Spartans!)
      • Battle of Salamis
      • Was defeated and returned to Persia
zoroastrianism
ZOROASTRIANISM
  • Persian religion Named after its prophet -- Zoroaster
  • Tenets
    • Proto-Monotheistic: Ahura Mazda
      • Humans play a role in the struggle between good and evil
      • Humans are given the freedom to choose between right and wrong
fall of the persian empire
FALL OF THE PERSIAN EMPIRE
  • Kings became isolated and focused on obtaining luxuries, following Darius
  • Struggles over the throne weakened the monarchy
  • Family problems
  • Eventually defeated by Alexander the Great

Persian archer