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Timed Simulation with Multiple Resource Schedulability Analysis. Yang Zhao and Slobodan Matic University of California, Berkeley Dec 10, 2004. Introduction. Embedded software for control determinism both in value and time multiple resources Simulation environment timing constraints

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timed simulation with multiple resource schedulability analysis

Timed Simulation with Multiple Resource Schedulability Analysis

Yang Zhao and Slobodan Matic

University of California, Berkeley Dec 10, 2004

introduction
Introduction
  • Embedded software for control
    • determinism both in value and time
    • multiple resources
  • Simulation environment
    • timing constraints
    • resource utilization
    • component interactions
  • Multi-domain timed simulation
    • Discreteness of software in CT domain
    • Timed Multitasking Ptolemy domain [LL03]
  • Simulink RTWorkshop
    • Model: periodic multi-rate patterns
      • no fast reaction to external triggers
    • Code: rate-monotonic schedule (almost)
      • no specification and analysis of timing constraints
motivating example
Motivating Example

[KHM03]

Advanced automotive

control applications with

end-to-end deadlines

tm software architecture
TM Software Architecture
  • Concurrent interaction in TM actors
    • Atomic actors (tasks):
      • Task execution times (estimates)
      • Resource(s)
    • Composite actors:
      • Task graph
      • Deadline
      • Invocation trigger condition (pattern)
    • set of TM composite actors in other domain
  • Schedulers
    • Static table-based
      • Schedulability analysis
      • schedule generation off-, dispatching on-line
    • Dynamic priority EDF-based
      • No schedulability analysis
      • scheduling and dispatching on-line
schedulability analysis
Schedulability Analysis

multiple

processors

no intertask

communication

[CCLL95]

  • Mixed-integer programming techniques
  • Branch and Bound global scheduling

+

single

processor

intertask

communication

topological order

in linear time

+

multiple

processors

intertask

communication

NP-complete

[BKS99]

+

periodic event scheduling problem pesp
Periodic Event Scheduling Problem (PESP)
  • set of periodic events A 8 a2 A . p(a)=T
    • time function :A![0,T)
  • span constraint S: interval D=[d-,d+], integer k

event pair (a1,a2) satisfiesSif d-· (a2) - (a1) + kT · d+

T=12, D=[5,7]

  • PESP instance

T2R , (A,E), d+,d-:E![0,T)

  • PESP algorithm [SU89]
    • find minimum spanning tree of (A,E)
    • successively satisfy constraints on each chord of the tree
      • otherwise find blocking cycle with tight constraints

k=1

k=0

  • PESP solution
    • :A![0,T), k:E! Z
static tm model scheduling
Static TM Model Scheduling
  • Invocation pattern known
    • All release times known and periodic

t(a)execution time, r(a) resource !(a) start time in [0,T)

  • two types of span constraints
    • mutual exclusion: 8 a1,a2. 8 r2 R. r(a1)=r(a2)
      • t(a1) ·(a2)-(a1)+k(a1,a2)T· T-t(a2)
    • precedence constraint for each path of task graph
      • t(ai) ·(ai+1)-(ai)+k(ai,ai+1)T· t(ai)+D, D=T-i=1: nt(ai)
      • t(an) ·(a1)-(an)+(1-i=1: n-1k(ai,ai+1))T· t(an)+D
  • Multi-rate solution:
  • Deadline less than period: D=deadline - i=1:nt(ai)
  • Multiple (exclusive) resources
static tm demo

This demo uses a TMController to control a Car model to

drive at the Cruise Speed. The TM model contains tasks

periodically execute on a set of computing resources (processes). A PESPScheduler is used to statically check whether the TM model is schedulable for a given period and schedule the execution of these tasks.

Static TM Demo
dynamic tm model scheduling
Dynamic TM Model Scheduling
  • Invocation pattern unknown
    • task release times determined by model execution
    • task execution order dynamic and suboptimal
      • deadline miss detection
  • Composite end-to-end deadline
    • Deadline assignment (distribution) for intermediate tasks
    • Maximize minimal laxity: Li = [Di - j=1:nt(aj)]/n
  • Assign deadlines whenever composite actor is triggered

Use Earliest Deadline First strategy on each resource

dynamic tm demo
Dynamic TM Demo

Compare to the periodic demo, the TM model here is not periodically executed: some input happens randomlly. The TM model is executed when it is

triggered by an event. When it is triggered, it calcultes deadlines for related tasks. In this case, a task is released when it receives an event and an EDF scheduler is used to schedule the released tasks on the computing resource.

Some tasks are preempted

tm with multi resources in ptolemy
TM with Multi-Resources in Ptolemy
  • Several scheduling algorithm is implemented.
  • Support modeling and simulation with multi-resources (processes).
  • Refactor the Director to several modules:

ExecutionTime Estimator

Scheduler

Director

XXX

Resource

tm with multi resources in ptolemy1

<<Interface>>

Sceduler

+GenerateSchedule()

+Schedule()

PESPScheduler

TMDirector

EDFScheduler

AtomicActor

TM with Multi-Resources in Ptolemy

SimpleScheduler

<<Interface>>

Resource

+available()

ComputingResource

+execute()