The Relation between Agriculture and Climate Change: Reducing the Vulnerability of the Agriculture Sector. Oscar Rodas Asociación Guyra Paraguay (NGO) Paraguay, South América [email protected] Global emissions of GHG related to human activities. Deforestation (land use changes)
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Deforestation (land use changes)
In Paraguay in 2011 soy growers will require massive amount of fossils fuels to transport around 10,000,000 tons of soy bean at an equivalent of 1 truck transporting 20 tons in 1 trip (around 500,000 roundtrips!). Additional to by truck transportation internally in the country, fossils fuels are used to export the soy bean by boats using the Paraguay Parana rivers hydroways.
CLIMATE CHANGE INCREASES
VULNERABILITY OF AGRICULTURE
TO CLIMATE CHANGE
AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER EXPANSION
IS BASED ON DEFORESTATION
AGRO ECOSYSTEMS AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
TO FIGHTING CLIMATE CHANGE
AGRICULTURE BUSSINES EXPANSION
IS BASED ON SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES INCLUDING
FOREST AREA INCREMENT, PROTECTION AND RESTORATION
Agriculture is in the broad sense critical for LAC.
Agriculture tied to LAC physical resource base and natural assets.
Especially in South American countries, a great part of GHGs come from the agricultural sector.
2007 IPCC Report:
The impacts of CC on agriculture are expected to be substantial:
Natural resource base, livelihoods, economy, etc.
Lack of plans for resource management strategies
National Climate Change Downsclaing Climate Change Scenarios
in Paraguay predict a greater frequency of extreme
weather events related to CC.
Asociación Guyra Paraguay WWF Agrupación de Policía Ecológica y Rural
Asunción – Paraguay - Junio de 2009
REDUCED VULNERABILITY MEANS INCREASED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION CAPACITY AT THE SAME TIME!
In terms of adaptation, a wide variety of strategies should be used in agriculture:
Climate information systems in place (Systems to enhance climate predictability)
Water management technologies adopted (Improvements in water collection, drainage, irrigation distribution systems, maximize use of water in livestock production, etc.)
Better integrated management of natural resources and production systems (this includes water management, conservation agriculture, crop and pasture rotations, adjustment of planting dates, etc.)
Technological innovations to reduce climatic risks (biotechnology innovations to improve drought resistance and pests and disease resistance, invasive species, and improvements in irrigation infrastructure).
Institutional innovations with capacity built for early warning systems for climate (improved policy and regulatory frameworks for water management, agricultural and catastrophicriskinsurance, etc.).
Bottom-up participatoryprocessesforclimatechangeadaptation and reduce threatstoclimatevariability.
1. Identificate vulnerabilities and opportunities (with the agriculture sector)
2. Reduce uncertities (learn from the past, monitor the present and information for the future)
3. Identify technologies to reduce vulnerabilities (Diversify, store and efficient use of water, genetics, etc.)
4. Identify institutional architecture and policy interventions to reduce or transfer risks
Inter and intra-institutional coordination for State policies
Technologies available and duly tried to face mitigation and adaptation
Technical capacity to face technological challenges
Capacity to promote public-private coalitions
Capacity to provide bottom-up capacity for understanding variability and be prepared to face it.
Sustainability of actions