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Excretion of Liquid Waste. Chapter 49 By: Kayla Nida. Why do We need this?. This system is needed to allow for removal of impurities and waste from the body. Helps maintain homeostasis in the body Regulating Body temperature Regulating Blood glucose Oxygen pH concentrations .

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excretion of liquid waste

Excretion of Liquid Waste

Chapter 49

By: Kayla Nida

why do we need this
Why do We need this?
  • This system is needed to allow for removal of impurities and waste from the body.
  • Helps maintain homeostasis in the body
    • Regulating Body temperature
    • Regulating Blood glucose
    • Oxygen
    • pH concentrations
how this system came to be
How this system came to be:
  • Contain Nephridia, which are similar to the human kidney.
  • Obtain fluid from the body through the filtration system called Nephrostomes
    • Removes salt through active transport
    • Forms urine
  • Have Malpighian tubules
    • Urine is not formed by filtration
    • Waste molecules and potassium are secreted into the tubules trough active transport
    • Most of the potassium and water is reabsorbed into the circulatory system through the hind gut



vertebrate kidney
Vertebrate Kidney
  • Kidneys first developed among bony fish
    • Body fluids are hypotonic to surrounding sea water so water leaves their body by osmosis through the gills and urine
    • Drink large amounts of sea water to compensate
    • Kidney is needed to get rid of the divalent ions, such as salt
                  • Cartilaginous Fish
    • Kidney helps to reabsorb urea from the nephron tubule and maintain a blood urea concentration a 100 times higher than mammals
    • Urea makes the blood isotonic to the sea water, preventing water loss
vertebrate kidney continued
Vertebrate Kidney Continued:
  • Kidney in Amphibians: first terrestrial vertebrate
    • Identical to fresh water fish
    • Makes sense because they stay in moist places
    • Transport sodium across their skin from surrounding water
          • Reptiles
    • Fresh water reptiles have similar kidneys to amphibians
    • Marine reptiles tend to lose water and obtain a lot of salt
      • Process similar to bony fish; eliminate excess salt through salt glands
birds and mammals
Birds and Mammals
  • Only ones able to produce urine with a higher osmotic concentration than their body fluid
  • Can excrete waste in small amounts so that more water can be retained in the body
  • Human kidneys can produce urine that is more than 4.2 times concentrated as blood plasma
  • Only ones to have loop of Henle that produces the hypertonic urine
  • Kangaroo rat kidneys

are so efficient that it never

has to drink water!

nitrogenous wastes
Nitrogenous Wastes
  • Nitrogen containing by-products that must be removed from the body though urine
    • Ammonia- toxic to cells and only safe in very dilute concentrations
    • Urea- mammals excrete ammonia in this form
      • water soluble and can be excreted in large amounts through urine
    • Uric acid- Humans, Apes, and Dalmatians lack enzyme uricase, which converts uric acid into a more soluble derivative and must

excrete the uric acid

mammalian kidney
Mammalian Kidney
  • Fist sized organ located in the lower back
    • Juxtamedullary nephrons- long loops that go deeply
  • Receives blood from a renal artery from which urine is produced
  • Ureter: where urine drains and carries it to the urinary bladder
  • Renal pelvis: mouth of the ureter when flared up
    • Has cup-shaped extensions that receive urine from renal tissue
    • Tissue is split into an outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla
nephron structure and filtration
Nephron: Structure and Filtration
  • Each kidney contains 1 million nephrons

into the medulla

    • Cortical nephrons – shorter loops
    • Each nephron consists of a long tubule and small blood vessels

Glomerulus- a group of capillaries in the renal cortex

      • Capillaries filter the blood
  • Filtrate enters the first region of the nephron tubule= Bowman’s Capsule
  • Proximal convoluted Tubule- sends filtrate to the loop of Henle
  • Fluid is then sent to the Distal Tubule, which drains into the collecting duct
  • All the collecting ducts merge in the medulla to empty the urine
4 functions of the kidney
4 functions of the Kidney
  • Filtration
  • Reabsorption
reabsorption and secretion in glomerulus
Reabsorption and Secretion in Glomerulus
  • Driven by active transport and secondary active transport
  • Reabsorbs glucose, amino acids, and other molecules needed by the body
  • Moves out of tubules and into the blood
  • Moves from the blood and into the tubule to be excreted
  • Involves the transport of molecules across the capillaries and kidney tubules into the filtrate



  • Elimination of nitrogenous wastes, potassium, and other ions
  • Urin’s high hydrogen concentration helps maintain the acid base balance of the blood from 7.35-7.45
  • Maintains blood volume and pressure because of the excretion of water
    • More water excreted means lower blood volume and visa-versa
    • Important for homeostasis
hormones control osmoregulatory functions
Hormones Control Osmoregulatory functions
  • Include volume of blood, blood pressure, and osmolality of blood plasma
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Produced by hypothalamus and secreted by pituitary gland
    • Secreted when a person is dehydrated or eats salty food, making you thirsty
    • Causes walls of distal tubules and collecting ducts to become more permeable to water= conserving water
aldosterone and atrial natriuretic hormone
Aldosterone and Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
  • Aldosterone- secreted by the adrenal cortex
    • Stimulated by the drop in blood sodium concentration
    • Stimulates the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts to reabsorb sodium, decreasing the excretion of sodium in the urine
    • Promotes secretion of potassium to help regulate the potassium concentrations in the blood
    • Atrial Natriuretic Hormone (ANH)
    • Secreted by the right atrium of the heart in response to an increase in blood volume
    • Promotes excretion of salt and water into the blood to lower the blood volume
other systems depend on the kidney
Other Systems Depend on the Kidney
  • The Kidneys maintain a constant internal environment
  • When affected by disease, a rise in the blood concentration of waste products, disturbances of electrolyte balance, and failure of blood pressure regulation occur
  • This causes other systems to develop problems because the homeostasis is thrown off
diseases with the excretion of l iquid waste
Diseases with the Excretion of Liquid Waste
  • Kidney disease- gradual and permanent loss of kidney over time.
    • Five stages of severity
    • Cured by replacing the kidney, watching your diet, some antibiotics
    • Gout- build up of uric acid in the body because the kidneys cannot process it correctly
    • Causes joint pain and kidney stones
    • Diet change and antibiotics are used to help clear it
    • Nephritis- inflammation of the nephron
    • Can suffer permanent damage= chronic
    • Most can be cured but severe cases have
    • lead to death