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Waste Treatment. ENVR 421 Mark Sobsey. Household Human Wastes and Wastewaters. Excreta and Graywater– Definitions and Properties. Excreta: Human feces and urine Managed in different ways: Direct disposal on land or in water Direct use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and for aquaculture

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Waste treatment l.jpg

Waste Treatment

ENVR 421

Mark Sobsey



Excreta and graywater definitions and properties l.jpg
Excreta and Graywater– Definitions and Properties

Excreta: Human feces and urine

Managed in different ways:

Direct disposal on land or in water

Direct use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and for aquaculture

Pre-treatment prior to use

Dilution with water to convey (sewage) for disposal or use

Direct use of untreated (raw) sewage

Treatment and discharge to land or water

Treatment and reuse (agriculture, aquaculture, horticulture, industrial and civil use

Graywater: Other wastewater from human activity

Not directly from human fecs and urine

Wastewater from washing, bathing, etc

Contains human wastes and exudates


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Managing Human Excreta - Options

  • “Dry” Collection:

    • Open defecation

    • Collect in a container

      • e.g., chamber pot

    • Discharge to the environment w/ or w/o Rx

      • Latrines – several kinds

    • Treat or dispose of or both

    • Separate feces and urine;

      • Then, treat/store, use, dispose to the environment


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Managing Human Excreta - Options

  • Semi-wet (or semi-dry)

  • Use some water

  • Pour-flush toilets and other low water use systems


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Managing Human Excreta - Options

  • Wet Systems

    • On-site Septic Systems

    • Other On-site systems

      • Soak pits

    • Sewerage

    • Sewage treatment systems


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Human Excreta – Resource or Risk?

  • Human excreta as a potential resource

  • Contains nutrients (N, P, K, and organic matter)

  • Nutrients and organic matter are:

    • Detrimental in water, esp. surface water

      • Eutrophication, anoxia, fish kills

  • Beneficial on land

    • Fertilizer, soil conditioner, land stabilizer

  • Widely used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in both developed and developing countries

  • Potential for excreta misuse and environmental pollution is great without proper attention to management plans and human behavior considerations

Annual Amounts/Person, Kg


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Nutrient Content of Human Excreta

  • Rich source of inorganic plant nutrients: N, P K and organic matter

  • Daily human excretion: ~30 g of C (90 g of organic matter), ~ 10-12 g N, ~ 2 g of P and 3 g of K.

  • Most organic matter in feces most N and P (70-80 %) in urine. K equally distributed between urine and feces.


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14.1

12.3

5.3

3.6

K

Organics

kg COD/ (Person·year)

P

N

1.0

0.8

Nutrient content

kg N,P,K / (Person·year)

Composition of Household Waste and Wastewater

10.000 – 200.000 l

50 l

500 l

source: Otterpohl

Volume

Liter / (Person·year)

greywater urine faeces


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Characteristics of Human Wastes

fraction

characteristic

1. feces

  • hygienically critical (high risk)

  • consists of organics, nutrients and trace elements

  • improves soil quality and increase its water retention capacity

2. urine

  • less hygienically critical (less risk)

  • contains the largest proportion of nutrients available to plants

  • may contain hormones or medical residues

3. greywater

  • of no major (or less) hygienic concern/risk

  • volumetrically the largest portion of wastewater

  • contains almost no (or less) nutrients (simpler treatment)

  • may contain spent washing powders etc.



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urine

(yellowwater)

greywater

(shower,

washing, etc.)

faeces

(brownwater)

hygienisation by

storage or

drying

constructedwetlands, gardening,

wastewater ponds, biol.treatment, membrane-technology

anaerobic

digestion,

drying,

composting

liquid or dry

fertiliser

biogas,

soil

improvement

irrigation,

groundwater-

recharge or

direct reuse

Options for Excreta and Greywater Utilization

substances

treatment

utilisation


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Conventional Wastewater Treatment – Developed World

Wastewater Impacts to Natural Receiving Waters

BOD

Chemicals (N,P)

Synthetic Chemicals

Antibiotics

Microbial Pathogens

Treated wastewater is often discharged to nearby natural waters


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Water

Distribution

System

Water Treatment

Plant

Water Source

Wastewater

Collection

Wastewater

Treatment

Plant

Discharge

to Receiving

Water

Water

Use

Water Use Cycle


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Pathogen Concentrations in Raw Sewage

  • Highly variable and influenced by many factors:

    • Types and prevalence of enteric infections in the population

    • Geographic, seasonal, and climatological factors

  • "Strength" and age of the sewage.

    • More water use, weaker sewage.

      "Guesstimated Worst-case" Pathogen Concentrations in U.S. Raw Sewage (No./L):

    • Enteric Viruses and Protozoan Cysts: ~ 10,000 of Each Group/Liter.

    • Enteric Bacteria: ~100,000/Liter.


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Municipal Wastewater Collection(Chapel Hill, NC)

  • Generally, a gravity flow system

  • Includes pump stations and “Force Main” sewers



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Primary Treatment

Secondary Treatment

Tertiary Treatment

Anaerobic Digestion

Conventional Sewage Treatment




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Waste Solids (Sludge) Treatment

  • Treatment of the settled solids from 1o and 2o sewage treatment

  • Biological “digestion” to biologically stabilize the sludge solids

    • Anaerobic digestion (anaerobic biodegradation)

    • Aerobic digestion (aerobic biodegradation)

    • Mesophilic digestion: ambient temp. to ~40oC; 3-6 weeks

    • Thermophilic digestion: 40-60oC; 2-3 weeks

      Produce digested (biologically stabilized) sludge solids for further treatment and/or disposal

  • Waste liquids from sludge treatment are recycled through the sewage treatment plant

  • Waste gases from sludge treatment are released

    (or burned if from anaerobic digestion: methane, hydrogen, etc.)


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“Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens” “PFRP”:Class A Sludge

Class A sludge:

  • <1 virus per 4 grams dried sludge solids

  • <1 viable helminth ovum per 4 grams dried sludge solids

  • <3 Salmonella per 4 grams of dried sludge solids

  • <1,000 fecal coliforms per gram dry sludge solids

  • thermal (high temperature) processes (incl. thermophilic digestion); hold sludge at 50oC or more for specified times

  • lime (alkaline) stabilization; raise pH 12 for 2 or more hours

  • composting: additional aerobic treatment at elevated temperature

    Class A sludge or “biosolids” can be disposed by a variety of options (marketed and distributed as soil conditioner for use on non-edible plants)


  • Slide23 l.jpg

    Land Application of Treated Wastewater:

    Alternative Disposal Option




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    Modular Wastewater Treatment Systems

    electrochemical metals removal process, pH adjustment, coagulation, clarification, multi-media filtration, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, final pH adjustment, sludge dewatering


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    Wastewater Reuse

    Wastewater is sometimes reused for beneficial, non-potable purposes in arid and other water-short regions

    Often use advanced or additional treatment processes, sometimes referred to as “reclamation”

    • Biological treatment in “polishing” ponds and constructed wetlands

    • Physical-chemical treatment processes as used for drinking water:

      • Coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation

      • Filtration: granular medium filters; membrane filters

      • Granular Activated Carbon

      • Disinfection


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    Primary Treatment or Primary Sedimentation

    Settle solids for 2‑3 hours in a static, unmixed tank or basin.

    • ~75-90% of particles and 50-75% of organics settle out as “primary sludge”

      • enteric microbe levels in 1o sludge are sometimes ~10X higher than in raw sewage

        • enriched by solids accumulation

    • Overall, little removal of many enteric microbes:

      • typically ~50% for viruses and bacteria

      • >50% for parasites, depending on their size


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    Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions in Secondary or Biological Treatment

    • Aerobic biological treatment: typically, activated sludge (AS) or trickling filtration (TF)

    • Then, settle out the biological solids produced (2o sludge)

    • ~90-99% enteric microbe/pathogen reductions from the liquid phase

    • Enteric microbe retention by the biologically active solids: accumulation in AS flocs or TF biofilms

    • Biodegradation of enteric microbes by proteolytic enzymes and other degradative enzymes/chemicals

    • Predation by treatment microbes/plankton (amoeba, ciliates, rotifers, etc.

    Aerobic microbes utililize carbon and other nutrients to form a healthy activated sludge AS biomass (floc)

    The biomass floc is allowed to settle out in the next reactor;

    some of the AS is recycled


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    Waste Solids (Sludge) Treatment Biological Treatment

    • Treatment of settled solids from 1o and 2o sewage treatment

    • Biological “digestion” to biologically stabilize the sludge solids

      • Anaerobic digestion (anaerobic biodegradation)

      • Aerobic digestion (aerobic biodegradation)

      • Mesophilic digestion: ambient temp. to ~40oC; 3-6 weeks

      • Thermophilic digestion: 40-60oC; 2-3 weeks

    • Produce digested (biologically stabilized) sludge solids for further treatment and/or disposal (often by land application)

      • “Thickening” or “dewatering”

      • drying or “curing”

    • Waste liquids from sludge treatment are recycled through the sewage treatment plant

    • Waste gases from sludge treatment are released

      (or burned if from anaerobic digestion: methane, hydrogen, etc.)


    Enteric microbe pathogen reductions by sludge treatment processes l.jpg
    Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions by Sludge Treatment Processes

    • Anaerobic and aerobic digestion processes

      • Moderate reductions (90-99%) by mesophilic processes

      • High reductions (>99%) by thermophilic processes

    • Thermal processes

      • Reductions depend on temperature

        • Greater reductions at higher temperatures

        • Temperatures >55oC usually produce appreciable pathogen reductions.

    • Alkaline processes: lime or other alkaline material

      • Reductions depend on pH; greater reductions at higher pHs

        • pH >11 produces extensive pathogen reductions

    • Composting: high temperature, aerobic biological process

      • Reductions extensive (>99.99%) when temperatures high and waste uniformly exposed to high temperature

    • Drying and curing

      • Variable and often only moderate pathogen reductions


    Processes to further reduce pathogens pfrp class a sludge33 l.jpg
    “Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens” “PFRP”: Class A Sludge

    Class A sludge:

    • <1 virus per 4 grams dried sludge solids

    • <1 viable helminth ovum per 4 grams dried sludge solids

    • <3 Salmonella per 4 grams of dried sludge solids

    • <1,000 fecal coliforms per gram dry sludge solids

      PFRPs:

    • Thermal (high temperature) processes (incl. thermophilic digestion); hold sludge at 50oC or more for specified times

    • lime (alkaline) stabilization; raise pH 12for 2 or more hours

    • composting: additional aerobic treatment at elevated temperature

    • Class A sludge or “biosolids” disposal by a variety of options or used as a soil conditioner

      • Class A biosolids can be marketed/distributed as soil conditioner for use on non-edible plants


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    Alternative Biological Treatment of Wastewater: Class A SludgeAlternatives for Small and Rural Communities

    • Lagoons, Ponds and Ditches

      • aerobic, anaerobic and facultative; for smaller communities and farms

      • enteric microbes are reduced by ~90-99% per pond

        • multiple ponds in series increases microbe reductions

    • Constructed Wetlands

      • aerobic systems containing biologically active, oxidizing microbes and emergent aquatic plants

    • Lagoons and constructed wetlands are practical and economical sewage treatment alternatives when land is available at reasonable cost


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    Stabilization Ponds or Lagoons Class A Sludge

    • Aerobic and Facultative Ponds:

    • Biologically Rx by complementary activity of algae and bacteria.

    • Used for raw sewage as well as primary‑ or secondary‑Rx’d. effluent.

    • Bacteria and other heterotrophs convert organic matter to carbon dioxide, inorganic nutrients, water and microbial biomass.

    • Algae use CO2 and inorganic nutrients, primarily N and P, in photosynthesis to produce oxygen and algal biomass.

    • Many different pond designs have been used to treat sewage:

    • facultative ponds: upper, aerobic zone and a lower anaerobic zone.

    • Aerobic heterotrophics and algae proliferate in the upper zone.

    • Biomass from upper zone settles into the anaerobic, bottom zone.

    • Bottom solids digested by anaerobic bacteria.


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    Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions in Stabilization Ponds Class A Sludge

    • BOD and enteric microbe/pathogen reductions of 90%, esp. in warm, sunny climates.

    • Even greater enteric microbe /pathogen reductions by using two or more ponds in series

    • Better BOD and enteric microbe/pathogen reductions if detention (residence) times are sufficiently long (several weeks to months)

    • Enteric microbes reduced by 90% in single ponds and by multiples of 90% for ponds in series.

    • Microbe removal may be quite variable depending upon pond design, operating conditions and climate.

      • Reduction efficiency lower in colder weather and shorter retention times


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    Constructed Wetlands and Enteric Microbe Reductions Class A Sludge

    • Surface flow (SF) wetlands reduce enteric microbes by ~90%

    • Subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands reduce enteric microbes by ~99%

    • Greater reduction in SSF may be due to greater biological activity in wetland bed media (porous gravel) and longer retention times

    • Multiple wetlands in series incrementally increase microbial reductions, with 90-99% reduction per wetland cell.


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    Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systems for On-Site Sewage Rx Class A Sludge

    • Used where there are no sewers and community sewage treatment facilities: ex.: rural homes

    • Septic tank: solids settle and are digested

    • Septic tank effluent (STE) is similar to primary sewage effluent

    • Distribute STE to soil via a sub-surface, porous pipe in a trench

    • Absorption System: Distribution lines and drainfield

    • Septic tank effluent flows through perforated pipes located 2-3 feet below the land surface in a trenches filled with gravel, preferably in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

      • Effluent discharges from perforated pipes into trench gravel and then into unsaturated soil, where it is biologically treated aerobically.

    • Enteric microbes are removed and retained by the soil and biodegraded along with STE organic matter; extensive enteric microbe reductions are possible

    • But, viruses and other pathogens can migrate through the soil and reach ground water if the soil is too porous (sand) and the water table is high


    Log 10 reduction of pathogens by wastewater rx processes l.jpg
    Log Class A Sludge10 Reduction of Pathogens by Wastewater Rx Processes


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    Log Class A Sludge10 Reduction of Pathogens by Wastewater Rx Processes


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    REMOVAL OF ENTERIC BACTERIA BY SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESSES Class A Sludge

    ORGANISM PROCESS % REMOVAL

    Fecal indicators Primary sed. 0‑60%

    E. coli Primary sed. 32 and 50%

    Fecal indicators Trickling filt. 20‑80%

    Fecal indicators Activated sludge 40‑95%

    Fecal indicators Stab. ponds, 1 mo. >99.9999% @ high temp.

    Salmonellae Primary sed. 79%, 6‑7 hrs.

    Salmonellae " 73%, 6‑7 hrs.

    Salmenellae Trickling filt. 92%

    Salmonellae Activated sludge ca. 99%


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    Entamoeba histolytica Class A Sludge Reduction by Sewage Treatment

    ORGANISM PROCESS % REMOVAL

    E. histolytica Primary Sed. 50%

    E. histolytica Primary Sed., 2 hr. 64%

    E. histolytica Primary sed., 1 hr. 27%

    E. histolytica Primary sed. + Trickl. Filt. 25%

    E. histolytica " 74%

    E. histolytica " 91%

    E. histolytica Primary sed. + Act. Sludge 83%

    E. histolytica Oxidation ditch + Sedimentation 91%

    E. histolytica Stabilization ponds + sedimentation 100%

    E. histolytica " 100, 94, 87

    E. histolytica " 100

    E. histolytica Aerated lagoon (no settling) 84%



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    Disinfection of Wastewater Class A Sludge

    • Intended to reduce microbes in 1o or 2o treated effluent

      • Typically chlorination

      • Alternatives: UV radiation, ozone and chlorine dioxide

    • Good enteric bacterial reductions: typically, 99.99+%

      • Meet fecal coliform limits for effluent dicharge

        • Often 200-1,000 per 100 ml geometric mean as permitted discharge limit

    • Less effective for viruses and parasites: typically, 90-99% reduction

    • Toxicity of chlorine and its by‑products to aquatic life now limits wastewater chlorination; may have to:

      • Dechlorinate

      • Use an alternative, less toxic chemical disinfectant or

      • Use an alternative treatment process to reduce enteric microbes

        • granular medium (e.g., sand) filtration

        • membrane filtration


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    When Wastewater Disinfection is Recommended or Required Class A Sludge

    • Discharge to surface waters:

      • near water supply intakes

      • used for primary contact recreation

      • used for shellfish harvesting

      • used for irrigation of crops and greenspace

      • other direct and indirect reuse and reclamation purposes

    • Discharge to ground waters waters:

      • used as a water supply source

      • used for irrigation of crops and greenspace

      • other direct and indirect reuse and reclamation purposes


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    Wastewater Reuse Class A Sludge

    • Wastewater is sometimes reused for beneficial, non-potable purposes in arid and other water-short regions.

    • Often uses advanced or additional treatment processes, sometimes referred to as “reclamation”

    • Biological treatment in “polishing” ponds and constructed wetlands

    • Physical-chemical treatment processes as used for drinking water:

      • Coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation

      • Filtration: granular medium filters; membrane filters

      • Granular Activated Carbon adsorption

      • Disinfection


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    100000000

    100000000

    10000000

    10000000

    1000000

    1000000

    100000

    100000

    10000

    10000

    1000

    1000

    Number/100 ml

    100

    100

    10

    10

    1

    1

    F. col.

    E. coli

    Ent.

    C. p.

    F+ phg.

    Raw

    Treated

    (geom. mean values of 24 biweekly samples)


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    Sewage Treatment Rx: % Reduction Total % Reduction Sewage: Sewage Treatment Efficacy

    Primary settling 50 50

    2o biological treatment 99 99.5

    Granular medium filtration 90 99.95

    Disinfection 99 99.9995

    Estimated Pathogen Reductions by Sewage Treatment Processes: An Example