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Introduction. ED(s), Embodiment , and Identity. Outlook . Disorder of eating behaviour. Disorder of embodiment. Disorder of identity. Hypothesis.

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Disorder of eating behaviour

Disorder of embodiment

Disorder of identity

  • Persons with EDs experience their own body first and foremost as an object being looked at by another, rather than coenesthetically or from a first-person perspective.
clinical impressions supporting the hypothesis
Clinicalimpressions(supporting the hypothesis)
  • Alienation from one’s own body and from one’s own emotions,
  • disgust for it,
  • shame,
  • and an exaggerated concern to take responsibility for the way one appears to the others;
  • as well as the capacity to feel oneself only through the look of the others,
  • through objective measures
  • and through self-starvation
phenomenological framework
  • Many of the features of persons with EDs can be illuminated by looking at it in the light of the Sartrean concept of feeling a lived-body-for-others.
three bodies
Three bodies
  • Living/Lived body (Leib)
  • Object body (Körper)
  • Lived body for others
living lived body leib
Living/lived body (Leib)
  • The body experienced from within, my own directexperience of my body in the first-person perspective, myself as a spatiotemporal embodied agent in the world.
  • This is the coenesthetic apprehension of one’s own body, the primitive experience of oneself, the basic form of self-awareness, or direct, unmediated experience ofone’s own body.
  • Chaire(Merleau-Ponty)
leib in statu detrahendi
LEIB (in statu detrahendi)

Living body,ratherthan

Lived body,ratherthan

Perceived body

Objectualized body

Externalized body

Explicit Body

Pornographic body

  • Dead body
  • Devitalized body
  • Deanimated body
  • An-emotional body
  • An-intentional body
  • Mechanical body
object body k rper
Object-body (Körper)
  • The body explicitly perceived and/or thematically investigated from without, as for example by natural sciences as anatomy and physiology, from a third person perspective.
  • The body that can be manipulated.
lived object
  • The lived-body turns into a physical, objective body whenever webecome aware of it in a disturbing way.

Implicit=> Explicit

  • Whenever our movement is somehow impeded or disrupted, then the lived-body is thrown back on itself, materialized or ’corporealized’.
  • It becomes an object for me.
lived body for others
Lived body forothers
  • One can apprehend one’s own body as something when it is looked at by another person.
  • When I become aware that I - or better that my own body - is looked at by another person, I realize that my body can be an object for that person.
  • Sartre: the ‘lived-body-for-others’.

“With the appearance of the Other’s look I experience

the revelation of my being-as-object”.

  • The upshot of this is a feeling of

“having my being outside (…) [is the feeling] of being an object”.

  • Thus, one’s identity becomes reified by the gaze of the other, and reduced to the external appearance of one’s own body.
  • Shame reveals to myself my selfhood as an object for another (Sartre 1943).
  • Shame means to be utterly exposed to the present, to the painful presence of their devaluating gazes, to annihilating disdain and contempt (Fuchs 2002).
  • Shame lowers the person’s self-respect, and may entail either the person’s wish to hide or disappear or, more positively, attempts to reconstruct or improve oneself (Williams 1933).
  • Shame is an affect that awakens and focuses my attention.
  • When I feel ashamed, I am aware of being seen by another person whose gaze uncovers a part of who I am, usually a part that makes me feel embarrassed, inadequate, dishonored and humiliated.
  • The effect of shame is that it reduces the complexity of the person that I am to one single aspect of it: when I feel ashamed I know that for the other I am nothing but that specific feature of the complexities of who I am.
body as otherness
Body asOtherness
  • One’s body as the most intimate formofOtherness
  • Involuntaryaspects in humanexistence: body,world, others, history
  • The body asfacticity and contingency
  • Dialecticsbetweenoneself and one’s own body
body as facticity
Body asfacticity
  • ‘Facticity’, including oneself as ‘this’ body, its form, height, weight, colour, as well as one’s past and what is actually happening.
  • Havingbeen a living bodily being before, I now realize that I have a material (impeding, clumsy, vulnerable, finite, etc.) body.
body as a task
Body as a task
  • The material body is transcendental to me.
  • It is an attribute that I can/must modify.

=> Techno-body

  • The culture of late modernity promises that one can modify one’s own material body at one’s own will.
experimental phenomenology
  • Factor 1: “Feeling oneself only through the gaze of the other and defining oneself only through the evaluation of the other” (GEO)
  • Factor 2: “Feeling oneself only through objective measures” (OM)
  • Factor 3: “Feeling extraneous from one’s own body” (EB)
  • Factor 4: “Feeling oneself through starvation” (S).
Factor 1: “Feeling oneself only through the gaze of the other and defining oneself only through the evaluation of the other” (GEO)
  • Knowing what the others think of me calms me down (15) 0.79
  • I can’t stand not to know what the others think of me (18) 0.89
  • For me it’s very important to see myself through the eyes of the others (1) 0.80
  • When I meet someone I can’t stay without knowing what he thinks of me (23) 0.78
  • I am dependent on the evaluation of the others (13) 0.91
  • Even if I think that the way the others evaluate me is wrong, I can’t do without it (16) 0.86
  • The way I feel depends on the way I feel looked at by the others (11) 0.82
  • Sometimes I focalize myself through the gaze of the others (7) 0.70
  • Seeing myself from their point of view me makes me feel very anxious (8) 0.72
factor 2 feeling oneself only through objective measures om
Factor 2: “Feeling oneself only through objective measures” (OM)
  • Having control on my weight means having control on the possible changes that happen in my body (21) 0.89
  • Only if I have my weight under control being looked at by the others makes me fell allright (10) 0.85
  • Having my weight under control makes me feel in control of my emotional states (22) 0.91
  • In all this confusion knowing that my weight is under control reassures me a little bit (9) 0.77
  • If my measures remain the same over time I feel that I am myself, if not I feel I am getting lost (5) 0.77
factor 3 feeling extraneous from one s own body eb
Factor 3: “Feeling extraneous from one’s own body” (EB)
  • Sometimes, the emotions I feel are extraneous to me and scare me (4) 0.80
  • I see myself out of focus, I don’t feel myself (14) 0.86
  • I see myself fuzzy/hazy, as if I had no boundaries (6) 0.79
  • The fear of change is an emotion that I can’t tolerate (20) 0.80
  • The flesh is unimportant; it doesn’t let me feel my bones (12) 0.71
factor 4 feeling oneself through starvation s
Factor 4: “Feeling oneself through starvation” (S).
  • Eating according to my own rules is the only way to feel myself (2) 0.84
  • If I could not eat the way I want I would not be myself anymore (3) 0.86
  • If I follow your dietary prescriptions I cannot recognize myself when I look at myself in the mirror; this does not happen if I
  • do things in my own way (17) 0.73
  • Changing my own eating habits scares me to death, as any other change in my life (19) 0.71
a tentative model
A tentativemodel

Feeling oneself through

the gaze of the other

Feeling oneself through

objective measures

Feeling extraneous

from oneself

Feeling oneself through


ed s esthetic body rather than cenesthetic
ED(s): Esthetic body ratherthancenesthetic
  • No cenesthetic (pathic) basis for identity
  • Hyper-identification with one’s own body

One’s own body as:

  • An object looked at by the others
  • An object to be manipulated
  • The Buildung of one’s body is a way to build one’s identity
the dialectics of the body
The dialecticsof the body
  • I am this body, but also I am not just this body
  • I am this body, but also I have that body
the paradoxical body in melancholia
The paradoxical body in melancholia
  • Strcture of hyper-identification (with one’s own body)
  • Object-body-that-I-am
  • Paradoxical Lived Körper
  • This-ness
  • Living dead
abe s in schizophrenia
ABE(s) in Schizophrenia
  • That-ness
  • Dynamization of bodily boundaries: 16 patients
  • Dynamization of body construction: 13 patients
  • Externalization: 11 patients
  • Morbid Objectivization or Devitalization: 14 patients
  • Pain-like experiences: 6 patients
  • Dysmorphic-like experiences: 9 patients
hypochondria hyper esthesic body
Hypochondria: hyper-esthesic body
  • One’s body lived hyper-esthesically

=> becomes an object for bio-medicine

  • Bio-medicine is collusive to this