GRDG626: Language, Literacy, and Diversity Multilingual Learners Dr. Gloria E. Jacobs
Agenda Sharing Small Group Discussion Student Lead Discussion Break Minilecture on ELL Next Week
Sharing Complete sharing what you learned from school analysis
Review discussion • For white teachers in predominantly African American schools, given what we know about the values of communities of color as expressed through community cultural capital as well as our growing knowledge of AAE, how should we structure classrooms to build on that what students bring to the classroom? • What should the classroom environment look like? • How should students be assessed? • How should curriculum be designed? • How should instruction be delivered?
Small Group Discussion Random groups After free discussion, prepare to lead a whole group discussion by creating one substantive, open ended question to pose to the class.
Minilecture Issues in bilingual education Strengths and needs of multilingual learners Instructional strategies
Next Week:Using Linguistic Analysis to Inform Instruction Adger, C.T., Wolfram, W., & Christian, D. (2007). Dialects in Schools and Communities. Chapters 1 and 2 (wiki) Freeman, D. & Freeman, Y. (2004). Essential Linguistics: What You Need to Know to Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, and Grammar. Chapter 3 English Phonology (wiki) NPR Interview with William Labov Writing Due: Classroom Interaction Analysis
Teaching Multilingual Learnersadapted from Educating English Language Learners by NCLR G. Jacobs, Ph.D.
Issues • Additive versus Subtractive multilingualism • Multiple languages, backgrounds, experience with language and literacy • English Language Learner • Limited English Proficiency • English as a New Language • English as a Second Language • Bilingual • Multilingual
Acquiring an Additional Language A new language represents a new culture and a new way of thinking, feeling, acting.
Acquisition versus Learning • Krashen • Acquisition v learning • Fluency acquired through meaningful exposure not study of grammar and rules • Focus on receptive language
Expressive & Receptive Language • Ellis & Yedlin • Language input must be adjusted in response to learner’s proficiency, prior knowledge, interests • Draw learner’s attention to linguistic features • Expressive language just as important as receptive language
Importance of Social Interaction • Swain • Learners must pay attention to language structures • Importance of social interaction • Wong-Fillmore • Interact with fluent speakers • Direct feedback
Interacting with English Language Learners • Chaudron, Ellis & Goldenberg • Adjust speech to learner’s comprehension • Ask questions • Paraphrase • Clarify
Balance between acquisition and learning Acquisition without learning explicit rules may result in “fossilization” of errors (Wong-Fillmore & Snow) Learning without acquisition may result in halting, awkward speech (or silencing) (Krashen)
Role of Emotions • Krashen’s Affective Filter • Learning and acquisition cannot occur if negative emotional states block input into the brain • Boredom • Anxiety • Disinterest
What Learners Need • Provide learners with opportunities to • Listen • Interact • Speak in a nonthreatening environment • Acknowledgement and use of student’s home language and world knowledge (Dutro & Moran) • Build on students’ prior knowledge of language and content • Create meaningful contexts for functional use of language • Provide comprehensible input and model forms of language in a variety of ways • Establish a positive environment for feedback • Reflect on the forms on language and process of learning
What Transfers from 1 Language to Another (Diaz-Rico & Weed) Print has meaning Various purposes of reading and writing Concepts of print Book orientation Directionality Letter/symbols represent sounds Word are composed of letters Knowledge of text structure Semantic and syntactic knowledge Use of cues to predict meaning Reading strategies Identity as a literate person
Stages of Language Proficiency • Entering – pictoral representations, words & phrases • Beginnning – General language, phrases & short sentences, oral & written language contain phonological, syntactic, semantic errors that impede understanding • Developing – General and some specific content area language, expanded sentences, errors may impede understanding • Expanding – specific and technical content language, variety of sentence lengths of varying complexity, minimal errors that do not impede understanding • Bridging – technical language of the content area, vareity of sentence lengths, varying complexity, multiple paragraphs, errors similar to those of native speakers
Culturally Responsive Teaching Positive perspective on parents and families Communicate High Expectations Learning with context of culture Student centered instruction Culturally-mediated instruction Reshape curriculum Teacher as facilitator
Basic Sequence of Instruction • Provide a meaningful experience • Record the experience • Model the expectations • Group students with other learners • Pairs & small groups • Consider cultural differences in context • Monitor and support comprehension • Elaborate on short answers
Specific Strategies • Instructional conversations • Students & teacher pick a topic to discuss • Teacher acts as facilitator • Dialogue journals • Learning logs • Literature circles • Pattern books and repetitive songs • Language Experience Approach • Graphic organizers • Mixer (one sentence /sticky note, students organize into a paragraph) • Dictoglos • Book buddies • Detective • Inferences, Evidence, What Actually Happened • Draw then write • Letter writing