unit 6
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
UNIT 6

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 71

UNIT 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 174 Views
  • Uploaded on

UNIT 6. SECTIONAL CRISIS AND CIVIL WAR. WESTWARD EXPANSION AND SLAVERY. Mexican War (1846-1848) Wilmot Proviso (1846) would prohibit slavery in any territory secured from Mexico compromise ideas: extend the Missouri Compromise line “squatter sovereignty” Election of 1848

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'UNIT 6' - cardea


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
unit 6

UNIT 6

SECTIONAL CRISIS AND CIVIL WAR

westward expansion and slavery
WESTWARD EXPANSION AND SLAVERY
  • Mexican War (1846-1848)
    • Wilmot Proviso (1846)
      • would prohibit slavery in any territory secured from Mexico
      • compromise ideas:
        • extend the Missouri Compromise line
        • “squatter sovereignty”
  • Election of 1848
    • each party attempts to avoid the slavery issue in the new territories
    • the party system began to break down
      • Free Soil Party (1848)
        • abolitionists and antislavery Whigs
compromise of 1850
COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • Slavery and the new western territories:
    • Gold Rush (1849)—massive influx of people to California
    • December 1849—California submits application for statehood with a constitution prohibiting slavery
  • Taylor wants to resolve the issue on the local level but:
    • congressional opposition
    • heated issues between North and South
      • fugitive slave law
      • slave trade in Washington DC
    • Southern fear over power balance in Congress
    • 1850—MS calls for a states rights convention in Nashville to consider secession
compromise of 18501
COMPROMISE OF 1850
      • January 1850—Henry Clay (73), Daniel Webster (68), John Calhoun (68)
        • fail to resolve conflict after six months of debate
  • June 1850—younger generation emerges
    • Stephen Douglas (D-ILL) (37)
      • breaks large will into smaller bills
      • passes each on individually
compromise of 18502
COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • California admitted as a free state
  • no restrictions on slavery in the remaining Mexican territories
    • popular sovereignty—people of the territory decide whether to allow slavery or not
  • slave trade abolished in Washington DC
  • passage of a stronger fugitive slave law
reorganization of political parties
REORGANIZATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES
  • Compromise of 1850
    • continued the breakdown of the Whig Party and the “southernization” of the Democratic Party
    • Election of 1852—“Conscience Whigs” defect to Free Soil Party
    • emergence of antislavery congressional leaders
    • northern resistance to fugitive slave laws
      • mob resistance
      • personal liberty laws
    • continued rise of Nativism
      • “Know-Nothing” Party
continuing sectional tensions 1850 s
CONTINUING SECTIONAL TENSIONS (1850’S)
  • expansionism and continued sectional conflict
    • Ostend Manifesto (1854)
      • called Cuba a “natural part of the US”
      • US offers Spain to accept $120 million for Cuba
      • threatens US invasion if not accepted
      • Spain threatens to free and arm millions of slaves to defend Cuba
        • filibusters—private military expeditions directed at Cuba
    • rejected by Congress
      • abolitionists see it as evidence of the slave power conspiracy
kansas nebraska act 1854
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT (1854)
  • Transcontinental Railroad
    • Southerners favored a line from St. Louis, Memphis, or New Orleans to California
      • Gadsden Purchase (1853)—US purchases part tract of northern Mexico
    • Northerners favor a line from Chicago to California
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
    • Douglas introduces a bill that would create two territories, Nebraska and Kansas
      • popular sovereignty—people of the territory decide whether to allow slavery or not
      • repeals the Missouri Compromise
kansas nebraska act 18541
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT (1854)
  • Results:
    • destroys the Whig Party for good
    • transformed the Democratic Party into the Southern Party
    • leads to the formation of the antislavery Republican Party
      • antislavery Whigs, antislavery Democrats, and Free Soilers
bleeding kansas 1854 1861
BLEEDING KANSAS (1854-1861)
  • Kansas became ground zero in the battle over slavery
    • pro and anti-slavery settlers began pouring into Kansas
    • 1855—proslavery forces elect a majority of the legislature (Lecompton)
    • 1856—free-staters elect their own government (Lawrence)
    • state erupts in fighting between pro and antislavery forces
      • proslavery group burns headquarters of Lawrence government
      • Pottawatomie Massacre (John Brown)
      • caning of Charles Sumner by Rep. Preston Brooks (D-SC)
free soil free labor ideology
FREE SOIL, FREE LABOR IDEOLOGY
  • abolitionism had created some moral support for the injustice of slavery
  • most whites were most concerned with what slavery did to whites
  • free labor—defines American freedom as property ownership, small-scale capitalism
  • viewed the South as anti-democratic
    • rejects individualism and progressivism
  • “slave power conspiracy” to spread slavery threatened Northern freedom of labor and soil
  • becomes the ideological foundation of the Republican Party
proslavery ideology
PROSLAVERY IDEOLOGY
  • up until the early 1830’s, many white Southerners had reservations about slavery
    • by the mid-1830’s, an increaingly militant defense of slavery
      • slave rebellions (Nat Turner)
      • increased reliance on cotton
      • attacks by abolitionists (Garrison)
      • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe)
  • blacks needed white guidance (paternalism)
  • slaves have a better standard of living than white northern labor
  • only means for the two races to live peaceably together
  • North viewed as corrupt and destructive
  • “northern” abolitionist conspiracy
final steps to civil war 1857 1860
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)
  • Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)
    • Court’s decision:
      • Scott was not a legal citizen
      • slaves are not US citizens
        • slaves do not have constitutional rights
      • the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
        • Congress had no authority to regulate slavery
final steps to civil war 1857 18601
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)
  • The Impending Crisis of the South (Rowan Helper)
    • attacked the political economy of slavery and the planter aristocracy
    • small Southern farmers had no way of making a profitable living like those of the free soil North
    • warned of revolutionary violence by white non-slaveholders
    • led to panic and paranoia in both North and South
final steps to civil war 1857 18602
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)
  • Continuing Crisis in Kansas
  • 1858—Congress had to choose between two different state governments and constitutions
    • one passes the House; rejected by the Senate
    • splits the Democratic Party into Northern and Southern branches
final steps to civil war 1857 18603
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)

Lincoln—Douglas Debates (1858)

  • Lincoln:
    • Founding Fathers had recognized the inconsistency between the Declaration and slavery
      • they had abolished the slave trade and abolished slavery in the north
    • accuses Democrats of:
      • conspiring to extend slavery into the free states and territories
      • denying free labor in the West
    • rejects black and white social equality
    • “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”
lincoln douglas debates 1858
LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES (1858)
  • Douglas:
    • defends popular sovereignty
    • Founders recognized that slavery was a local institution
    • Freeport Doctrine
      • people of a territory could effectively exclude slavery by refusing to enact slave codes
    • accuses Republicans:
      • wanting to interfere with slavery in the South
      • advocating black and white social equality
      • little difference between discrimination toward blacks in the North and black slavery in the South
final steps to civil war 1857 18604
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)
  • John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry (October 1859)
    • Brown concocts a plan to invade Virginia and arm its slaves by seizing the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry
    • financial support from “Secret Six” (Boston abolitionists, philanthropists, and clergy)
    • event impacted forces on both sides of the slavery issue:
      • Northern sympathy for Brown shocked the South more than the actual raid
      • played on Southern fears of slave rebellions
final steps to civil war 1857 18605
FINAL STEPS TO CIVIL WAR (1857-1860)
  • Election of 1860
    • Abraham Lincoln (Republican)
      • antislavery
      • high tariffs
      • internal improvements
      • transcontinental railroad financed by the government
    • John Breckenridge (Southern Democrats)
    • Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrats)
  • Lincoln wins the presidency with a mere 40% of the popular vote
final attempts to avoid civil war
FINAL ATTEMPTS TO AVOID CIVIL WAR
  • Secession
    • South Carolina withdraws from the Union (December 20, 1860)
    • seven states secede before Lincoln even assumes office
      • Dec. 20, 1860—SC
      • Jan. 9, 1861—MS
      • Jan. 10, 1861—FL
      • Jan. 11, 1861—AL
      • Jan. 19, 1861—GA
      • Jan. 26, 1861—LA
      • Feb. 1, 1861—TX
final attempts to avoid war
FINAL ATTEMPTS TO AVOID WAR
  • upper southern states do not secede initially (VA, KY, TN, NC, ARK)
  • begin looking for some compromise to resolve the crisis
    • Crittenden Compromise
      • restore the Missouri Compromise line
      • guaranteed federal protection of slavery in all states and any future territories south of the line
      • federal government compensation to slaveowners for escaped slaves
the civil war beginnings of the war
THE CIVIL WAR:BEGINNINGS OF THE WAR
  • Ft. Sumter (South Carolina)
    • Lincoln sends naval ships with non-military supplies
    • April 12, 1861—firing on Ft. Sumter
    • April15—VA secedes, followed shortly by ARK, TN, and NC
    • four border slave states stay in the Union (KY, MD, DL, MZ)
  • Lincoln’s strategy
    • Anaconda strategy
      • pressure Virginia (Richmond)
      • seize control of the Mississippi River
    • lack of military readiness on both sides
the fighting begins first battle of bull run
THE FIGHTING BEGINS: FIRST BATTLE OF BULL RUN
  • First Battle of Bull Run(July 21, 1861)
    • (35,000 Union, 21,000 Confederate)
  • Results:
    • impact on northern and southern morale
    • dispelled notion of a quick and decisive war
    • destroyed Lincoln’s faith in his generals
    • first Confiscation Act (1861)
      • Union will confiscate any Southern property, including slaves
      • Union Army use of fugitive slave labor
mobilizaton the south
MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH
  • THE SOUTH
    • spring 1861
      • eleven states have seceded
      • created the Confederate States of America
    • issues with Confederate government:
      • weak government system
        • single-party system
        • state sovereignty
        • economic issues
mobilizaton the south1
MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH
  • MILITARY ADVANTAGES:
    • military experience of Confederate officer corps
    • Fighting to defend its own territory
      • did not have to conquer the North
      • did not have to destroy the Union’s industrial base
      • did not have to destroy the Union army
      • no need for occupation forces
      • short supply lines
      • “home field” advantage
      • friendly civilian population
    • availability of slave labor
    • rural, isolated societies
mobilizaton the south2
MOBILIZATON: THE SOUTH
  • MILITARY DISADVANTAGES:
    • inferior navy
    • lack of foreign support
    • much smaller population
    • lack of industrial strength
    • lack of financial resources
mobilization the north
MOBILIZATION: THE NORTH
  • MILITARY ADVANTAGES:
    • naval superiority
    • larger population of fighting age men
    • large and expandable industrial base
    • large and growing financial resources
mobilization the north1
MOBILIZATION: THE NORTH
  • MILITARY DISADVANTAGES:
    • forced to fight offensively
    • forced to destroy the ability and will of the South to continue fighting
    • fighting on unfamiliar ground
    • hostile civilian population (seen as an occupier)
    • long supply lines
    • troops required for occupation and fighting
military strategy and tactics
MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS
  • The Confederacy
    • defend the political and territorial independence of the Confederacy
    • “dispersed defensive” strategy
      • fight long enough for northern public support to waver
      • force Union attacks at well-defended defensive positions
        • cause large Union casualty numbers
military strategy and tactics1
MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS
  • The North
    • Phase I (1861)
      • inflict military defeats on Confederate army
      • establish Union control in border states
      • convince Southerners to change their course
    • Phase II (1861-1862)
      • conquer large expanses of Southern territory
      • by Spring 1862:
        • Union army has captured 50,000 square miles in TN and lower MS Valley
        • poised to capture Richmond
military strategy and tactics2
MILITARY STRATEGY AND TACTICS
  • Phase III (1863-64)
    • “unconditional surrender”
    • destroy the Confederate army
    • Vicksburg/Gettysburg-turning points
  • Phase IV (1864-1865)
    • “total war”
    • destroy the South’s capacity and willingness to wage war
    • wage war on Southern society
      • Sherman’s March to the Sea
turning point battles
TURNING POINT BATTLES
  • The Western Theater—Vicksburg (July 1863)
    • the fortress town had frustrated Union attempts at capture for months
    • Grant finally lays siege and ceaselessly bombards the town
    • starved Confederates into submission after two months
    • gave Union control of the Mississippi River
    • opened the Deep South for invasion (Sherman’s March)
turning point battles1
TURNING POINT BATTLES
  • The Eastern Theater—Gettysburg
  • (July 1-3, 1863)
    • 90,000 Union vs. 75,000 Confederates
    • Union positioned on the high ground
    • Lee orders three flanking movements that fail
    • July 2—Lee orders Gen. George Pickett to attack the Union center on Cemetery Ridge
      • of 15,000, only 5,000 make it to the top
    • in three days, Lee has lost 1/3 of his army
wartime politics
WARTIME POLITICS
  • Republican wartime legislation
    • instituted the first military draft in US history (1862)
    • established a system of land-grant colleges
    • Homestead Act (1862)—promised a plot of land to all free settlers in the West
    • transcontinental railroad
wartime politics1
WARTIME POLITICS
  • Expansion of Presidential Power
    • Congress never declared war
      • “domestic insurrection”
        • enforcement action under presidential police powers
        • did not want to legitimize the Confederacy
    • Lincoln increased the size of the US military without legislative authority
    • Lincoln unilaterally ordered a naval blockade of the South
wartime politics2
WARTIME POLITICS
  • Lincoln Administration suppressed antiwar groups in the North
    • peace Democrats—“copperheads”
    • military arrest of civilian dissenters
    • suspension of writ of habeas corpus
    • 13,000 arrested during the course of the war
emancipation
EMANCIPATION

2nd Confiscation Act (July 1862)

  • authorized the use of blacks in the Union army (186,000 ultimately serve)
emancipation1
EMANCIPATION

Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)

  • Had decided to issue it on Sept. 22, 1862
  • issued after the horrific battle at Antietam
  • an executive order under presidential war powers
  • free forever slaves in all areas of the Confederacy
  • did not apply to slave border states that had remained in the Union (Missouri, Kentucky)
  • greatly expanded antislavery sentiment in the North
    • by war’s end, slavery had been voluntarily abolished in other areas of the Union (MZ, MD, TN, LA, ARK)
emancipation2
EMANCIPATION

Sherman’s Special Field Order #15

  • set aside abandoned and confiscated land for free slaves (sea islands in Georgia and South Carolina)
  • later revoked by President Johnson (1866)
  • raised the question of distributing land to freed slaves

13th Amendment (1865)

  • outlawed slavery in all of the United States forever
aftermath of the civil war
AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR
  • northern economic boom
    • agriculture advancement increased Northern agricultural output
    • industrial growth spurred by supplying the Union army
    • continuation of the railroad boom
  • destruction of the Southern slave, cotton economy and social order
    • slavery abolished
    • Southern land and infrastructure lay in ruins
    • ¼ of white men dead, countless others maimed permanently
  • redistributed political and economic power and wealth to the North
  • emancipation of over 4 million slaves
aftermath of the civil war1
AFTERMATH OF THE CIVIL WAR
  • massive, unprecedented loss of life:
    • Union— 364,511 dead; 281,881 wounded (646,392 total)
    • Confederate—260,000 dead; 194,000 wounded (454,00 total)
    • Totals—624,511 dead; 475,881 wounded (1,100,392 total)
ad