role of the liver n.
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Role of the Liver. Do Now. Without looking at your notes, list 5 things we talked about last class. Homework Due. Rough Draft. Homework. Quiz tomorrow Will begin 48 hour food log tomorrow after class. Review.

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do now
Do Now
  • Without looking at your notes, list 5 things we talked about last class
homework due
Homework Due
  • Rough Draft
  • Quiz tomorrow
  • Will begin 48 hour food log tomorrow after class
  • Metabolism – a broad term referring to all chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life
  • Catabolism – substances are broken down to simpler substances
    • Broken bonds create energy
  • Anabolism – larger molecules or structures are built from larger molecules or structures
  • BMR is the amount of heat produced by the body per unit of time, while the body is at rest
    • Basically the individuals necessary energy supply to perform essential life activities
    • Breathing, heartbeat, kidney function
  • Some factors that increase BMR:
    • Male
    • Young age
    • Strong emotions of anger/fear
  • Fact of the matter is, we all don’t just live to breath and have our heart beat
  • TMR refers to the total amount of Calories the body consumes to fuel all physical activities
  • When a trained athlete exercises for several minutes, TMR can increase 15-20 times normal
the liver
The Liver
  • “Renaissance Man” of the body
    • Important in digestion of fat
    • Detoxifies drugs and alcohol
    • Make cholesterol and proteins vital to the body
the liver1
The Liver
  • Blood is filtered through the liver
  • Liver filters out amino acids, fatty acids and glucose
  • Destroys bacteria that have made their way into the blood
liver function on metabolism
Liver Function on Metabolism
  • Maintains normal blood glucose level
    • 100 mg/100 mL of blood
  • After eating heavy duty amount of carbs, liver removes glucose and stores as glycogen in the liver (glycogenesis)
  • Blood sugar levels will drop, and liver breaks down stored glycogen and releases it to the body (glycogenolysis)
  • Liver can also create glucose from fats and proteins, known as glyconeogenesis
liver function and blood sugar
Liver Function and Blood Sugar
  • As blood sugar increases, glycogenesis converts glucose to glycogen and stores it
  • As blood sugar falls, glycogenolysisbreaks down stored glycogen, converts it to glucose and releases it to the blood
  • Only 15% comes from diet, 85% is made by the liver
    • High cholesterol is genetic
  • Cholesterol helps build plasma membranes of cells
  • Not soluble, can’t circulate freely in the blood
  • Transported by HDLs and LDLs
hdls v ldls
HDLs v. LDLs
  • LDLs transports cholesterol to the body cells
  • Large amounts of LDLs circulated increases the risk of becoming imbedded in the arterial walls
  • HDLs transport cholesterol from the tissue to the liver to be disposed
  • HDLs “good”, LDLs “bad”
    • But both necessary
heat protecting mechanism
Heat Protecting Mechanism
  • Hypothalamus in the brain regulated body temp to stay between 96-100 degrees
  • When body temp falls, the body must conserve heat
    • Vasoconstriction
      • Blood vessels of skin shrink, preventing blood flow and keeping blood deeper, toward more vital organs
    • Shivering
  • Temporarily, vasoconstriction can be harmless
  • However, if vasoconstriction can eventually cause a deprivation of oxygen, thus causing skin cells to die (frostbite)
  • When vasoconstriction is no longer effective and core body temp drops, shivering starts
    • Skeletal muscle activity produces lot of heat
heat releasing mechanisms
Heat Releasing Mechanisms
  • Most heat released through the skin (radiation)
  • If external environment is as hot as the body, heat cannot be lost by radiation, only evaporation of sweat
  • If weather is humid, evaporation is much less effective
heat stroke v heat exhaustion
Heat Stroke v. Heat Exhaustion
  • Increased heat production, increases the rate of the metabolism
  • Skin becomes hot and dry, but is unable to lose heat via sweat
  • Heat stroke can cause permanent damage to the brain
  • Heat exhaustion is when an individual faints following physical activity, usually associated with dehydration
  • Quiz tomorrow