process models n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Process Models PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Process Models

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 49

Process Models - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 230 Views
  • Uploaded on

Process Models. CS510 Supannika Koolmanojwong. Outline. What is a Process Model? Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011) Incremental Commitment Spiral Model V-Model RUP/ OpenUp Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban Concurrent Engineering. Software Development Process.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Process Models' - cardea


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
process models

Process Models

CS510

Supannika Koolmanojwong

outline
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

software development process
Software Development Process
  • Or Software Development Life Cycle
  • The actual set of activities performed within an organization
  • Popular Models:
    • Waterfall model
    • Spiral model
    • Iterative and Incremental model
    • Agile model

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide4

Waterfall Model

Spiral Model

Agile Model

Iterative and Incremental Model

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

outline1
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide6

Spiral Family of Models

1988

Where do OC&A’s come from?

1994

Where are phases and milestones ?

1996

1999

How to avoid model clashes?

What is really required and optional ?

2001

How to make the process more lean and agile?

2005

  • How can spiral be mapped onto system acquisition phases and milestones?
  • How can hardware, software and human factors be integrated?

2007

2010

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

spiral model 1988
Spiral Model (1988)
  • Waterfall model
  • Focus on front load elaboration
  • Spiral model
  • Risk-driven
  • Complete a round by review
  • Round 0- Feasibility Study
  • Round 1- Concepts of Operations
  • Round 2- Top level Reqm Spec

http://csse.usc.edu/csse/TECHRPTS/1988/usccse88-500/usccse88-500.pdf

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

winwin spiral model 1994
WinWin Spiral Model (1994)

Use the Theory W (win-win) approach to converge on a system's next level objectives, constraints and alternatives.

http://csse.usc.edu/csse/TECHRPTS/1995/usccse95-509/usccse95-509.pdf

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

anchor point milestones 1996
Anchor Point Milestones (1996)
  • Lack of intermediate milestones
    • Anchor Points: LCO, LCA, IOC
    • Concurrent-engineering spirals between anchor points

http://csse.usc.edu/csse/TECHRPTS/1995/usccse95-507/usccse95-507.pdf

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

spiral rup compatibility
Spiral/RUP compatibility

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

the incremental commitment model
The Incremental Commitment Model

6 Key Principles:

Commitment and accountability

Incremental growth of system definition and stakeholder commitment

Concurrent engineering and Iterative development cycles

Success-critical stakeholder satisficing

Risk-based activity levels and milestones

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide14

Spiral Family of Models

1988

Where do OC&A’s come from?

1994

Where are phases and milestones ?

1996

1999

How to avoid model clashes?

What is really required and optional ?

2001

How to make the process more lean and agile?

2005

  • How can spiral be mapped onto system acquisition phases and milestones?
  • How can hardware, software and human factors be integrated?

2007

2010

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

outline2
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

v model
V-Model
  • - Extension of Waterfall model, but V up to pair development with testing
  • Widely used in systems engineering
  • Does not explicitly shown the concurrent engineering
  • Challenges in supporting evolutionary development

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

dual vee model
Dual-Vee Model
  • Show concurrent development
  • Supports system of systems

Forsberg, Kevin; Harold Mooz, Howard Cotterman (2005), Visualizing Project Management, Third Edition, New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons, Inc.

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide18

V with multiple deliveries

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

outline3
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

rational unified process rup
Rational Unified Process (RUP)

Discipline

  • Six Best Practices
  • Develop iteratively
  • Manage requirements
  • Use components
  • Model visually
  • Verify quality
  • Control changes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_Rational_Unified_Process

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

openup
OpenUP
  • OpenUP is a lean Unified Process that applies iterative and incremental approaches within a structured lifecycle

http://epf.eclipse.org/wikis/openup/

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

outline4
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

lean principles
Lean Principles
  • From Toyota Production System
  • 7 Lean principles
    • Eliminate waste – anything that does not add value
    • Amplify learning – continuous update about the project
    • Decide as late as possible – delay decisions, gather more information
    • Deliver as fast as possible –daily deliveries, daily standup meeting
    • Empower the team – get good people, listen, communicate
    • Build integrity in – build good products
    • See the whole - “Think big, act small, fail fast; learn rapidly”

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

eliminate waste
Eliminate waste
  • Waste = anything that does not create value for a customer
  • Step 1: learning to see waste
  • Step 2: uncover the biggest sources of waste and eliminate them
  • Step 3: uncover the biggest remaining sources of waste and eliminate them

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

the seven wastes of software development
The seven wastes of Software Development
  • Partially Done Work – tend to become obsolete; no idea it will eventually work; waste resources; should do risk-reduction and waste-reduction
  • Extra Processes – paperwork necessary?, try to use table, template
  • Extra Features – waste time and resources
  • Task Switching – put people in multiple projects
  • Waiting – causes delay; decide as late as possible
  • Motion – even walking down the hall waste time; sit in the same room
  • Defects – detect defect as soon ASAP
  • Management activities – instead of tracking status, make sure work flows properly; reduce tracking time

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

scrum
Scrum
  • Compared to Rugby game, where all partners tackle the problem, passing the ball back and forth
  • Three main roles: Scrum master, Product owner, Team
  • Self-organizing, co-location teams

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

introduction to scrum
Introduction to scrum
  • Scrum Framework
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BWbaZs1M_8&feature=related
  • Explaining Scrum
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WxiuE-1ujCM&feature=related

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

scrum vs icsm
Scrum vs ICSM

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

xp extreme programming
XP-Extreme Programming
  • Frequent release
  • Shorter timebox
  • Frequent communication
  • Expecting requirements changes

Drawbacks

  • Unstable requirements
  • No documents
  • Lack of overall design

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

xp principles
XP principles

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide32
XP
  • Three types of wastes from Toyota Production system
    • Muda – non-value added tasks
      • E.g. No gold plating
      • Avoid Muda by using high planning and coordination
    • Muri – uneveness or variability
      • Avoid Muri by using skilledcraftmanship, one story at a time
    • Mura – overburdening or failure load
      • E.g. Fixing bugs, responds to helpdesk, fix requirements
      • Avoid Mura by using tests and tight definition of done

Ref: David Anderson, XP 2010 , Trondheim, Norway

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

to reduce waste in xp
To reduce waste in XP
  • Techniques to reduce waste in XP
    • Agile Workcell
    • Elimination of planning
    • Reducing Red
  • This introduces Kanban (further elimination of waste)

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

kanban
Kanban
  • Focus on “managing flow”
  • Limit Work-In-Progress: complete a feature before starting a new one
  • Iteration and estimate are optional
  • Could be used on top of other processes

http://www.crisp.se/kanban

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

kanban concepts
Kanban concepts
  • Visualize workflow
    • More than work, but interaction and coordination
  • Limit Work-in-progress
  • Measure and Manage Flow
    • Use metrics such as velocity, burndown, churn
  • Make Process Policies explicit
    • Clear on who is doing what and when
  • Use Models to evaluate improvement opportunities

Traffic at 100 percent capacity does not move

Ref: David Anderson, XP 2010 , Trondheim, Norway

http://moduscooperandi.com/personalkanban/why-limit-work-in-progress/

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

visualize workflow limit wip
Visualize Workflow & Limit WIP

At a morning standup meeting……

  • Observe workflow
    • What is happening?
    • Where is the bottleneck?
  • Check performance
    • Velocity, backlog
  • Identify improvement opportunities

David Anderson, XP 2010 , Trondheim, Norway

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide37

Probably no instant feedback from Success Critical Stakeholders

  • What can be improved here ?
    • Bottleneck, Variability, Waste
  • Craftmanship & Leadership to improve the process and use performance as evidence to support

David Anderson, XP 2010 , Trondheim, Norway

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

slide40

Limit Work-In-Progress

If urgent, drop the green task, because it has the lowest cost of delay

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

example of kanban board
Example of Kanban Board

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

outline5
Outline
  • What is a Process Model?
  • Spiral Family of Models (1988 – 2011)
  • Incremental Commitment Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • RUP/OpenUp
  • Lean, Scrum, XP, Kanban
  • Concurrent Engineering

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

concurrent engineering
Concurrent Engineering
  • TeamX – JPL
  • Concept Design Center – Aerospace Corp.

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE

cdc tasks
CDC Tasks

(C) 2012 USC-CSSE